2.7 Legitimating the regime
In this unit we will examine a range of Napoleonic imagery by David, Gros and a number of other artists, beginning with comparatively simple single-figure portraits and moving on to elaborate narrative compositions such as Jaffa and Eylau. In so doing, we will have three main aims: to develop your skills of visual analysis, to examine the relationship between art and politics and to introduce you to some of the complex issues involved in interpreting works of art.
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3.2 Idealisation

There were fundamental principles of painted portraiture that affected every element of the portrait, from expression and pose to background and lighting. The first imperative was the need to idealize the sitter.


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3.1 Introducing ideology in portraiture

Figure 9
Image 9 Photographer/Painter: French School. Subject: Portrait of a nobleman seated at a desk, c.1750.

2.4 National variation

Relatively little research has been undertaken by photohistorians in the field of domestic photography. However, we should be aware that photography developed in different ways in different countries. So, for example, in Britain the daguerreotype remained a luxury article, as high prices restricted sales to the comfortable classes, whereas in America, because of early mass production techniques, studios could offer 4 daguerreotypes for 1 dollar.

Photography was, however, a European inve
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2.3 Photographs as artefacts

Bear in mind that photographs are artefacts. This means that they are more than just images. The photographer, the process and the packaging all add something to our understanding of the role of the photograph. So, for example, the mount can indicate its purpose (exhibition wall, domestic display, album and so on) and the significance attached to the article in its time. The physical properties of a mount, such as the quality of the card or style of printing, can distinguish top-of-the-range
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2.2 Photographs as primary sources

As a primary source of historical evidence the still photograph remains largely unexamined and unexplored. Many academic historians remain wedded to the written word and are often mistrustful or dismissive of the still image. Photographs continue to be used merely to prettify or to provide necessary breathing space in dense texts. In fact, the task of finding ‘illustrations’ is often only considered after a book is written. What could indicate more clearly that the photograph
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2.1.3 Amateur snapshots 1880s–

Image 7 Photographer/Painter: Anon. Subject: Audrey in pushchair, 1950s.
Figure 8
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2.1.2 Postcards c. 1902–1950s

2.1.1 Card mounted photographs 1860–c.1914

2.1 Styles of photograph

Let's briefly examine the various styles of photograph that are commonly found in family albums.

Figure 1
Image 1 Photographer/Painter: Anon. Subject: Unknown woman, 1840s.

1 How to avoid damage when handling photographs

Remember to treat your photographs with the consideration demanded by their age and fragility. Careless handling and storage will cause damage.

  • Handle photographs at the edges: the skin carries chemicals which cause deterioration (professional archivists wear cotton gloves).

  • Hold a photograph in both hands or support an unmounted print with a piece of cardboard to avoid unnecessary handling.

  • Never write on a photograp
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Glossary

Characterisation The revelation of character through techniques such as physical description, action, dialogue, interaction with other characters, and the depiction of thought, emotion and belief.
Dialogic Describes a narrative in which multiple voices, perspectives or discourses are present and engage and interact with each other.
D
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3 Conclusion

In this unit you have been introduced to the main components of prose fiction and have been given the opportunity to develop and practise your critical and analytical skills. These are essential skills you will need to continue your stufdies in this area.

4 Conclusion

Culture is just one perspective that can help us to understand more about a business. In this Unit we saw how the concept of culture developed from research into differences between cultures at a national level. Many cultural elements of a business are not obvious, but there have been some attempts in the academic literature to develop definitions and identify influencing factors. It is possible to see, or ‘feel’, that one business is different from another, and that this involves mo
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Sad Steps by Philip Larkin (read by Tom O'Bedlam)
"The strength and pain of being young", is the most telling phrase for me, in that both diminish with age. It is true that life becomes more comfortable once self-disesteem has been overcome, it gets easier when the growing pains are over. Then one has to accept one's own ineliminable limitations and the inevitability of physical decline and death. Middle-age is the time when the illusion of immortality starts to fail, mostly due to mundane daily reminders such as prostatic hyperplasia - t
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2.4 Pulse spreading and bandwidth

Activity 3

Calculate the maximum signalling rate given by the Nyquist rate for the 1550 nm window, assuming that it runs from 1450 nm to 1610 nm.

Answer
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21F.039 Japanese Popular Culture (MIT)
This course examines Japanese popular culture as a way of understanding the changing character of media, capitalism, fan communities and culture. Topics include manga (comic books), hip-hop and other popular music in Japan, anime (Japanese animated films) and feature films, sports (sumo, soccer, baseball), and online communication. Emphasis will be on contemporary popular culture and theories of gender, sexuality, race, and the workings of power in global culture industries.
Author(s): Condry, Ian

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

2.3 Citizens in conversation with nature and experts

Before leaving office in 2008, Sir David King (the ex-Chief Scientific Advisor to the UK Government) introduced an ethical code for scientists. This drew particularly on his experience in working across the scientific–political divide on issues of climate change. The code comprises three attributes of scientific endeavour: rigour, representation and responsibility (Author(s): The Open University

Listening, reading, language register: Is gossip good?
The student practices their listening skills by means of a (spoken) text about the definition of gossiping. He/she learns about the feelings evoked by words in this respect.
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