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6.3.1 Prototyping

The first prototypes may be made of any convenient material, such as clay, plaster-of-Paris or wood. Plastic models can also be made by fabrication or vacuum forming of thin sheet. Their primary function is to ensure that the product has ‘customer appeal’ when considered in aesthetic or ergonomic terms. This is particularly important for products which are to be consumer durables. It may be the first time in the design process that the concept sketches and initial engineering drawings are
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4.6.2 Material costs in manufacturing

For high added-value products like boats and cars, material costs form a relatively small proportion of total costs. For directly manufactured products, however, which are sold without much assembly or finishing, material costs do form a relatively large proportion of the total production cost. This applies particularly to polymeric containers for foods and drinks but not, for example, to containers for more sophisticated products like electronic or electrical goods. What is much more importa
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3.1 Introduction

The basic optical-fibre link consisted of the source (laser or LED), the fibre and the detector, as was shown in Figure 1. Improvements in these components can increase the data rate, but the system is still a point-to-point transmission link and all signal processing, such as routeing
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3.6.1 Stiffness

Just how compliant does an AFM cantilever have to be to enable it to follow the undulations in a surface on an atomic scale? How can we find out? It turns out that this is easier than at first it seems.

A simple assumption we can make is that the compliance of the cantilever should be appreciably greater than that of a typical bond that holds atoms to one another. Here's one way in which a rough estimate of the stiffness (the force required to cause a given deflection) of the bonds in a
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • Explain correctly the meaning of the emboldened terms in the main text and use them correctly in context;

  • Identify whether a given sound source can be classed as a musical instrument and explain why (Activity 2);

  • Identify the primary vibrator and any secondary vibrators in the most common types of instrument (Activity 3);

  • Appreciate that, when a note is played, a musical ins
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5.3 Purposeful and purposive behaviour

It is possible, as observers, to ascribe a purpose to what we or others do, the actions we take. How particular actions, or activities are construed will differ from observer to observer because of their different perspectives, which arise from their traditions of understanding. For example, in Author(s): The Open University

Part 3: 5 Self-assessment questions

SAQ 8

6.3 Distribution systems

The water from service reservoirs is distributed by a network of pipes of various sizes, laid beneath the streets, pavements and verges of our towns and cities. Any part of a distribution system can be isolated by valves at appropriate points. Figure 44 shows both a loop (as at A) and a spur or dead end (as at B) within a typical distribution layout. Looped or ring mains are always preferred to spurs or dead ends because when the rate of flow is restricted in a long spur, the water will remai
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6.1 Introduction

This section is concerned with the plant used in carrying water from the treatment works to houses, farms, blocks of flats and other buildings of a community. The major components of this distribution network are shown in Figure 37 and comprise:

  1. the service reservoir, which must balance the fluctuating demands of the users against the steady output from the source of supply, as well as provide a back-up supply should there be a breakdown at the source
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • describe the operation and mechanisms of the hydrological cycle;

  • list and describe the major physical, chemical and biological characteristics of clean fresh water, and explain their effects on aquatic organisms;

  • explain the mode by which potable water is produced through the processes of screening, microstraining, aeration, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, flotation, filtration and disinf
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4.2 New ways of thinking and acting: systems practice

There are a wide variety of concepts and theories relating to management and managing. This unit is centred on the ideas and techniques that we believe define systems thinking, but it also draws upon concepts and theories from other areas where these are deemed to be useful. On top of this we see systems practice as requiring a readiness to use the experiential model of learning set out by Kolb, bringing theory and practice together in a meaningful way.

It may be helpful to set out what
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Dr Sue Asbee

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce m
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1 Prelude: Hume's death

In mid-August 1776 crowds formed outside the family home of David Hume. Hume was a pivotal figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, and his imminent death was widely anticipated. The crowds were anxious to know how he was facing up to his coming demise.

Hume is best known today as a historian (through his History of England of 1754–62) and a philosopher. His Treatise of Human Nature is regarded by many as one of the most significant philosophical works to have been written
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1.4 The Victoria and Albert Museum's 'Sacred Spaces' exhibition

Some of these issues of representation were addressed indirectly by the Victoria and Albert Museum in London in 2000, when an exhibition called ‘Sacred Spaces’ was mounted in conjunction with religious communities. The idea was to invite groups from different faith traditions to relate artefacts in the museum to their contemporary religious life. In practice, this had various unforeseen consequences.

The Jewish group photographed some of the objects in the museum, and then photograp
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1.3 Representation

Representation is a complex idea, or set of ideas, but it is extremely important in relation to studying religion. Representing religion might mean being an official delegate of a religion, or it might mean trying to explain a religion to someone unfamiliar with it. Representation in the religious context might mean the use of an image to portray a divine figure or religious ideas, or it could refer to how a religion is characterized by either insiders or outsiders. Therefore, the sorts of qu
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1.1 What are the issues?

Some themes recur when we start to think about religion. These include issues of continuity and change, representation, differing perspectives, authority, community and identity. In this unit we start to consider some of them in detail.

The full list of themes and issues considered in this section are:

  • Continuity and change

  • Representation

  • The Victoria and Albert Museum 'Sacred Spaces' exhibition of 2000


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • have an awareness of key themes and debates in the field of religious studies;

  • have an understanding that religions have different, and sometimes contrasting, ways to present their beliefs and practices, and that the beliefs and practices of one religion are represented differently by others;

  • have an awareness that different media are used to represent and present religions.


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Introduction

There is a widespread perception in the West that we live in a secular age, an age in which religion is at best an optional extra, if not a false delusion completely out of place. However, religion still arouses passion and causes controversy; it controls and transforms lives. An informed understanding of the contemporary world thus requires an appreciation of the role of religion in shaping ideas, world-views and actions that have an impact on the social as well as on the personal life of th
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Acknowledgements

This unit was written by Professor Martin Clayton

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Video material

Extracts are t
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References

Bhatkhande, V.N. (1987) Hindustani Sangit Paddhati: kramik pustak malika, 6 vols, Sangeet Karyalaya, Hathras.
Cook, S. (1992) Guide to Sundanese music: a practical introduction to gamelan salendro/pelog, gamelan degung, panambih tembang Sunda, Bandung.
Apel, W. (ed.) (1944) The Harvard Dictionary of music, Heinemann, London.
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