3.4 Using a query language

When you search a large website for information, for instance when you search a large e-government site, very often, behind the scenes, a large relational database is being searched. I mentioned earlier the use of SQL as a way of extracting information from a database. Depending on the system being used, your enquiry may be converted into an SQL query, and this finds the information you need. For example, suppose we wanted to find the family names of all people enrolled on the digital photogr
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Learning outcomes

This is what you should have achieved when you have completed your study of this unit:

  • Understand the concept of e-government, and the associated benefits and drawbacks.

  • Understand how a relational database differs from a flat database, including the function and construction of a joining table.

  • Understand some of the basic principles of XML.

  • Understand the basic principles of biometric identification and verification systems


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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Networked living: exploring information and communication technologies (T175) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

Many governments across the world are moving towards the use of infor
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5.1 Introduction

In this section you will study the process demanded by the British Standard on Information Security Management for planning an information security management system (ISMS). We present ISMS development as a process involving four tasks, each of which may be subdivided into stages. This section also examines the managerial and organisational structures that the Standard recommends to support ISMS development and looks in detail at the ISMS documentation task.


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3.3 Incentives

Activity 8

Reread the short section entitled ‘Benefits of an information security management system’ at the end of Chapter 1 of IT Governance: A Manager's Guide to Data Security & BS 7799/ISO 177799 (the Set Book). In light
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3.2 Imperatives

Imperatives generally arise from three sources:

  1. threats: companies that depend on information and the technologies that carry it have to protect these resources from a wide range of threats;

  2. legislation: many countries have enacted legislation to govern the storage and use of information;

  3. regulation: many countries have regulations governing the management and control of public and private assets.
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2.3 What is information security management?

Information security management is the process by which the value of each of an organisation's information assets is assessed and, if appropriate, protected on an ongoing basis. The information an organisation holds will be stored, used and transmitted using various media, some of which will be tangible – paper, for example – and some intangible – such as the ideas in employees' minds. Preserving the value of information is mainly a question of protecting the media in which it is
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2.6 Finding images on the Web

As with websites, one of the easiest ways of searching for images is to use a search engine such as Google. You will see that above the Google search box are some words that allow you to select what you are searching for: web, images, groups, news, and more.

2.4 Using search engines

Search engines can be very good at finding information since they cover such a huge number of web pages. Unfortunately it can be difficult to find the one you want in the huge number of hits that they return. I can illustrate some of the problems, and some of the strategies you can use to overcome them, with an example.

Let's assume a friend of yours, Jill, has heard you talking about ‘Living with the Net’ and is trying to find out more about the course. What problems might Jill fac
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8.1 Introduction

This section continues with the work started in Section 7. Here you will build on your research to look at some recent applications of RFID and some of the issues surrounding its deployment.


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4.9 Bluetooth

The driving force for the development of the Bluetooth standard was to eliminate the need for connecting wires between local ICT devices such as keyboards, monitors, printers, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), cell phones and headsets. This was already possible using infrared technology, but the requirement for line-of-sight positioning between the communicating interfaces limits infrared's usefulness. Because Bluetooth uses radio waves, Bluetooth devices can communicate with each other wit
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5.2 Electronic kitchen scales

A set of electronic kitchen scales is shown in Figure 7. Their basic operation is relatively simple. When they are switched on and, for example, a 500-gram object is placed in the scalepan, the display shows the digits 500 and the letter g.

3.2 What does a processor look like?

So what do these devices that are manufactured in such vast quantities look like? Processors are manufactured as integrated circuits. Essentially they are circuits, around the size of a fingernail, which contain many millions of electronic components manufactured as one very complex circuit. Figure 4(a) shows how a processor manufactured as an integrated circuit is packaged so it can be used as a component in an electronic circuit. The pins of the package are connected to the integrated circu
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3.1 Processor statistics

In Sections 3.1 and 3.2 you are going to find out a little more about one of the key components of a computer: the processor, which manipulates data according to a list of instructions called a program.

Here is a mini-quiz which explores some facts about processors.

Question 1

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4.2.3 Lens system

The function of the lens system is to project an image onto the CCD light sensor. A well-designed system ensures that the image is sharp – in focus – and bright. To achieve this, what is needed is a good-quality glass lens (or rather a series of lenses) and accurate focusing. The brightness of the image depends upon the size of the lens. The bigger the lens, the brighter the image, but bigger lenses are more difficult to make and therefore more expensive. Also, of course, bigger lenses me
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Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permis
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8 CASE tools

Computer Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools were developed to support the professional system developer and improve their productivity in the complex task of developing large information systems.

The benefits that may accrue from the use of such tools are many. From a developer’s viewpoint, they provide support for modelling aspects of the system using a variety of notations and techniques: from diagrams to mathematics and text, producing prototype code, and even verif
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8.2 Example of a university registration data model

Here is a statement of the data requirements for a product to support the registration of and provide help to students of a fictitious e-learning university.

A UK-based e-learning university needs to keep details of its students and staff, the courses that it offers and the performance of the students who study its courses. The university is administered in four geographical regions (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland).

Information about each student should be initially
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8.1 Introduction

One type of data model is an entity–relationship data model.

Experience has shown that data can be best described by relationships between entities. An entity is anything of interest about which data is recorded, such as roads, weather stations, trucks and weather station readings in the IceBreaker project in the book MRP. In general, there will be many relationships (or associations) linking the entities. A trivial example is the fact that a given weather reading
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7.2 Exercises

Exercise 5

Draw an activity diagram for the main success scenario for the check out guest use case.

Answer

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