4.1 Introduction

I'll now look at what these components do in the communication system, using the mobile phone system as an example.


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3.1 Introduction

Generally, when we talk about communication between humans, we mean one person conveying information to another person. Figure 6 shows a basic model, or representation, of a communication system for getting a message from the sender to the recipient. The diagram shows the sender (User
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2.3 Models of an ICT system

To help me to introduce you to important ideas about ICT systems, I'm going to take a three-stage approach. ICTs involve conveying, manipulating and storing data. This is going to be the basis of my approach.

Firstly, in the next few sections, we'll look at ICT systems where the primary function is to convey data. We can think of these systems as communication systems and I'll use a mobile phone system as an example.

In sections 8–14, I'll focus on ICT systems wher
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2.2.2 Drawing the boundary

Deciding where to place the system boundary is an important consideration in that we have to think about what to include and exclude. This isn't always an easy decision to make and it often depends on the perspective of the person viewing the system.

The system maps in Figures 1
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Networked living: exploring information and communication technologies (T175) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

This unit will introduce you to some ideas about how information and
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References

Bisson, S. (2005) ‘Mark of success’, Guardian 'Life’ supplement. 10 February, p. 16.
Bly, S. (1997) ‘Field work: Is it Product Work?’, ACM Interactions Magazine, January and February, pp. 25–30; quoted in Preece et al. (2002), p. 387.
Bowcott, O. (2004) ‘Top security jails install fingerprint scan at gates’, Guardian, 5 August, 2004.
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4.1 Data and biometric data

Developing alongside the various e-government projects around the world are many biometric systems for authenticating identity. Governments have traditionally had a stake in the authentication of a citizen's identity through issuing passports, driving licences and other so-called identity documents. However, this is yet another area where ICTs are having a transforming effect, perhaps not to everyone's liking:

At A
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3.5 Other kinds of data

All the data we have had so far in the database has been text or numbers. I have mentioned that another type of data might be dates. Modern databases, however, can store other kinds of data than text, numbers and dates. They can also store graphics, moving pictures and sounds.

Activity 12 (exploratory)
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3.4 Using a query language

When you search a large website for information, for instance when you search a large e-government site, very often, behind the scenes, a large relational database is being searched. I mentioned earlier the use of SQL as a way of extracting information from a database. Depending on the system being used, your enquiry may be converted into an SQL query, and this finds the information you need. For example, suppose we wanted to find the family names of all people enrolled on the digital photogr
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Learning outcomes

This is what you should have achieved when you have completed your study of this unit:

  • Understand the concept of e-government, and the associated benefits and drawbacks.

  • Understand how a relational database differs from a flat database, including the function and construction of a joining table.

  • Understand some of the basic principles of XML.

  • Understand the basic principles of biometric identification and verification systems


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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Networked living: exploring information and communication technologies (T175) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

Many governments across the world are moving towards the use of infor
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5.1 Introduction

In this section you will study the process demanded by the British Standard on Information Security Management for planning an information security management system (ISMS). We present ISMS development as a process involving four tasks, each of which may be subdivided into stages. This section also examines the managerial and organisational structures that the Standard recommends to support ISMS development and looks in detail at the ISMS documentation task.


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3.3 Incentives

Activity 8

Reread the short section entitled ‘Benefits of an information security management system’ at the end of Chapter 1 of IT Governance: A Manager's Guide to Data Security & BS 7799/ISO 177799 (the Set Book). In light
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3.2 Imperatives

Imperatives generally arise from three sources:

  1. threats: companies that depend on information and the technologies that carry it have to protect these resources from a wide range of threats;

  2. legislation: many countries have enacted legislation to govern the storage and use of information;

  3. regulation: many countries have regulations governing the management and control of public and private assets.
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2.3 What is information security management?

Information security management is the process by which the value of each of an organisation's information assets is assessed and, if appropriate, protected on an ongoing basis. The information an organisation holds will be stored, used and transmitted using various media, some of which will be tangible – paper, for example – and some intangible – such as the ideas in employees' minds. Preserving the value of information is mainly a question of protecting the media in which it is
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2.6 Finding images on the Web

As with websites, one of the easiest ways of searching for images is to use a search engine such as Google. You will see that above the Google search box are some words that allow you to select what you are searching for: web, images, groups, news, and more.

2.4 Using search engines

Search engines can be very good at finding information since they cover such a huge number of web pages. Unfortunately it can be difficult to find the one you want in the huge number of hits that they return. I can illustrate some of the problems, and some of the strategies you can use to overcome them, with an example.

Let's assume a friend of yours, Jill, has heard you talking about ‘Living with the Net’ and is trying to find out more about the course. What problems might Jill fac
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8.1 Introduction

This section continues with the work started in Section 7. Here you will build on your research to look at some recent applications of RFID and some of the issues surrounding its deployment.


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4.9 Bluetooth

The driving force for the development of the Bluetooth standard was to eliminate the need for connecting wires between local ICT devices such as keyboards, monitors, printers, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), cell phones and headsets. This was already possible using infrared technology, but the requirement for line-of-sight positioning between the communicating interfaces limits infrared's usefulness. Because Bluetooth uses radio waves, Bluetooth devices can communicate with each other wit
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