1 Languages in the world

This section aims to make you aware of a world beyond your current sphere of knowledge.

Activity 1 English in the world

You should allow 5 minutes

Where is English spoken as an official language
Author(s): The Open University

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Varios estudiantes de Bellas Artes

Actividad 3

En esta actividad va a escuchar a varios estudiantes de Bellas Artes explicar lo que es para ellos el arte.

1 Como se trata de una conversación informal en la que los participantes se interrumpen mutuamente, emp
Author(s): The Open University

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4.12 The implications of gender differences in communication

Activity 20

0 hours 20 minutes

If it were true that men and women tend to communicate in very different ways, what might be the implications for health and social care in terms of:<
Author(s): The Open University

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2.8 ‘Difference’, power and discrimination

These first few sections have emphasised the point that differences are always produced in a social context, and that a key part of that context is power relationships. As pointed out earlier, a key element of Foucault’s social constructionist approach is that the way in which people are categorised in society (for example, by gender, ethnicity or age) involves an exercise of power that reflects the ideas and interests of dominant groups. One of the key arguments against essentialist views
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

Knowledge

  • distinguish between parenthood and parenting;

  • outline some of the reasons why parenting may require support from outside the immediate family;

  • demonstrate how individual, environmental and structural factors can have an impact on parenting;

  • challenge the notion that ‘problem’ parents and ‘problem’ families can be readily identified.

Skills
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

In the changing world of family life, parenting itself has come under closer examination. How important is quality parenting, who judges it, and is its provision the sole responsibility of parents – should parents just be left to get on with it? This unit explores what parenting actually means, what is meant by quality parenting, how it can be enhanced and promoted, and how services intended to promote quality parenting can be strengthened.

While working through this unit, you will be
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

  • demonstrate your understanding of how social welfare policy started to evolve at a national level after World War II;

  • locate information relevant to social welfare through reference to a range of sources;

  • evaluate the reliability of information from different sources.


Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

In this unit we explore questions of access to community services. To make what might be quite a dry task more challenging we use a fictionalised case study of two people for whom access to community services is particularly problematic. Jim and Marianne are both long-term heroin addicts. Additional problems associated with their addiction are homelessness and physical illness. Their situation raises both practical questions, about how services can be accessed, and moral questions, about enti
Author(s): The Open University

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References

Ariès, P. (1976) Western Attitudes Towards Death, Marion Boyars, London.
Cartwright, A., Hockey, L. and Anderson, J. (1973) Life before Death, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Dinnage, R. (1990) The Ruffian on the Stair: Reflections on Death, Viking, London.
Fenwick, P. and Fenwick, E. (1996) ‘The near-death
Author(s): The Open University

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1.3.2 Recurrent themes

When the accounts of people who have described a near-death experience are looked at side by side it is possible to identify some common features. This isn’t to say that all of these features are present in every account, but that amidst variations there are certainly recurrent themes. The following list is compiled from a variety of studies, including the important study undertaken by Sabom (1982), himself initially sceptical.


Author(s): The Open University

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1.5.5 The modern day relationship

However, things have been changing since Stein outlined the doctor-nurse game. A more recent study in Sweden reported that:

In our investigation, the nurses who had been working for 15–20 years often emphasised that it was during the past 8–10 years that marked changes had occurred in their interplay with doctors. Relations in former times are described in terms such as: ‘one had to stand on tiptoe’, ‘the
Author(s): The Open University

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1.4.1 Taking on a role

You can only succeed with a projection of yourself which other people are prepared to accept. And you then have to play out the scene the way others in the situation expect it to be played.

Reg and Glenda did not start their opening scene from nothing. They were working within widely shared understanding of home help work, which views it as version of ‘housework’. Cleaning and shopping are seen as traditional ‘women’s work’ – low in status, poorly paid and weakly defined in
Author(s): The Open University

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5.6 A few final thoughts

You will have seen from this section that it is difficult to talk about the heart without also talking about blood and veins and arteries. It is hard to isolate one body system or one body part and describe it by itself, without talking about other parts of the body as well. One of the important points that we would like you to remember about the biology of the human body is that everything is interlinked. An athlete hoping to maximise their performance in a sport has to work on all pa
Author(s): The Open University

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1 Is grief a medical problem?

Grief is a fertile area for debate and controversy within health care professions, and its significance as something in need of medical attention has been debated by both health analysts and social commentators alike. Is it a ‘natural’ phenomenon that should be respected and acknowledged, but one that requires that the bereaved individual is left alone to experience it in their own way? Or should the bereaved person be assisted with intervention which relies on the presumption that grief
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

This unit helps you to explore the extent to which death and dying in western societies are medical events and what aspects of death and dying might be neglected as a consequence. The unit covers the way that such things as medicine provide the context of the experiences associated with the end of life.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Death and dying
Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The material acknowledged below contains Proprietary content which is used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons licence). See Terms and conditions.

Text

Figures


Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • recognise some key factors which determine the way people experience and manage transitions;

  • identify elements of good practice for supporting people through transitions;

  • discuss how care environments can promote service users’ identity, strengths and autonomy;


Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Understanding stigma

In the first half of Section 3, the focus is on the nature of the stigmatisation and discrimination which can be experienced by people with mental health problems. The section then turns to consider racism in mental health services and the impact this has on black service users.

The ‘stigma’ of mental illness and distress refers to the idea that such experiences are a disgrace or an embarrassment, not only to the person concerned, but also to those around them. To be mentally distre
Author(s): The Open University

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1.6.2 Treating alcohol-related liver disorders

Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of many other chronic medical conditions, scant progress has been made in the treatment of cirrhosis. In over 8000 people admitted to hospitals in the Oxford region of the UK with liver cirrhosis during a 30-year observation period, 34 per cent had died one year after their admission and this death rate remained more or less constant (Roberts et al., 2005).

The largely pessimistic view of the failure of treatment of liver dam
Author(s): The Open University

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1.3.1 Alcoholic liver disease

Rachael's story illustrates the start of damage to the liver (Vignette 1).

Vignette 1 Rachael's health problems as the result of her drinking

Rachael drank heavily throughout her time as a manager in a travel company. For many years she was able to cope with the heavy demands of her job with
Author(s): The Open University

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