Learning outcomes

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

  • demonstrate your understanding of how social welfare policy started to evolve at a national level after World War II;

  • locate information relevant to social welfare through reference to a range of sources;

  • evaluate the reliability of information from different sources.


Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

In this unit we explore questions of access to community services. To make what might be quite a dry task more challenging we use a fictionalised case study of two people for whom access to community services is particularly problematic. Jim and Marianne are both long-term heroin addicts. Additional problems associated with their addiction are homelessness and physical illness. Their situation raises both practical questions, about how services can be accessed, and moral questions, about enti
Author(s): The Open University

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References

Ariès, P. (1976) Western Attitudes Towards Death, Marion Boyars, London.
Cartwright, A., Hockey, L. and Anderson, J. (1973) Life before Death, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.
Dinnage, R. (1990) The Ruffian on the Stair: Reflections on Death, Viking, London.
Fenwick, P. and Fenwick, E. (1996) ‘The near-death
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1.3.2 Recurrent themes

When the accounts of people who have described a near-death experience are looked at side by side it is possible to identify some common features. This isn’t to say that all of these features are present in every account, but that amidst variations there are certainly recurrent themes. The following list is compiled from a variety of studies, including the important study undertaken by Sabom (1982), himself initially sceptical.


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1.5.5 The modern day relationship

However, things have been changing since Stein outlined the doctor-nurse game. A more recent study in Sweden reported that:

In our investigation, the nurses who had been working for 15–20 years often emphasised that it was during the past 8–10 years that marked changes had occurred in their interplay with doctors. Relations in former times are described in terms such as: ‘one had to stand on tiptoe’, ‘the
Author(s): The Open University

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1.4.1 Taking on a role

You can only succeed with a projection of yourself which other people are prepared to accept. And you then have to play out the scene the way others in the situation expect it to be played.

Reg and Glenda did not start their opening scene from nothing. They were working within widely shared understanding of home help work, which views it as version of ‘housework’. Cleaning and shopping are seen as traditional ‘women’s work’ – low in status, poorly paid and weakly defined in
Author(s): The Open University

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5.6 A few final thoughts

You will have seen from this section that it is difficult to talk about the heart without also talking about blood and veins and arteries. It is hard to isolate one body system or one body part and describe it by itself, without talking about other parts of the body as well. One of the important points that we would like you to remember about the biology of the human body is that everything is interlinked. An athlete hoping to maximise their performance in a sport has to work on all pa
Author(s): The Open University

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1 Is grief a medical problem?

Grief is a fertile area for debate and controversy within health care professions, and its significance as something in need of medical attention has been debated by both health analysts and social commentators alike. Is it a ‘natural’ phenomenon that should be respected and acknowledged, but one that requires that the bereaved individual is left alone to experience it in their own way? Or should the bereaved person be assisted with intervention which relies on the presumption that grief
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Introduction

This unit helps you to explore the extent to which death and dying in western societies are medical events and what aspects of death and dying might be neglected as a consequence. The unit covers the way that such things as medicine provide the context of the experiences associated with the end of life.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Death and dying
Author(s): The Open University

Acknowledgements

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Text

Figures


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • recognise some key factors which determine the way people experience and manage transitions;

  • identify elements of good practice for supporting people through transitions;

  • discuss how care environments can promote service users’ identity, strengths and autonomy;


Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Understanding stigma

In the first half of Section 3, the focus is on the nature of the stigmatisation and discrimination which can be experienced by people with mental health problems. The section then turns to consider racism in mental health services and the impact this has on black service users.

The ‘stigma’ of mental illness and distress refers to the idea that such experiences are a disgrace or an embarrassment, not only to the person concerned, but also to those around them. To be mentally distre
Author(s): The Open University

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1.6.2 Treating alcohol-related liver disorders

Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of many other chronic medical conditions, scant progress has been made in the treatment of cirrhosis. In over 8000 people admitted to hospitals in the Oxford region of the UK with liver cirrhosis during a 30-year observation period, 34 per cent had died one year after their admission and this death rate remained more or less constant (Roberts et al., 2005).

The largely pessimistic view of the failure of treatment of liver dam
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1.3.1 Alcoholic liver disease

Rachael's story illustrates the start of damage to the liver (Vignette 1).

Vignette 1 Rachael's health problems as the result of her drinking

Rachael drank heavily throughout her time as a manager in a travel company. For many years she was able to cope with the heavy demands of her job with
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4.1 Introduction: the social context of social work

Extract 1 discussed the four components of good practice: Knowledge, Skills, Values and Process. From Extract 2 you will now have an understanding of ‘individual people’ in soci
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2.5 Component 3: Skills

We all have considerable skills that we develop as we go through life. Many of them are so familiar to us that we probably don't think about them. For example, the reading skill which you are using right now is a highly complex and sophisticated one which took years to develop to this level. Our approach to skills is again to provide you with a framework to help with your learning and understanding.

We use four categories of skill in our framework:


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2.4.2 What are social work values?

Traditionally, one of the things that distinguishes a profession is that it has a set of principles to which its members have to be committed and must put into practice. Sarah Banks defines social work values as:

a set of fundamental moral/ethical principles to which social workers are/should be committed.

(Banks, 2001, p. 6)

The British Association of Social Workers issued a revised C
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1.4 Type

The ACSM recommends exercise that employs large muscle groups, is rhythmic or dynamic, can be maintained continuously and is aerobic in nature (ACSM, 2006; Pollock et al., 1998). This type of exercise results in larger increases in VO2max. Activities that would fit into this category include walking, running, swimming and cycling.


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1.3.10 Allied health resources

There are quality nursing, midwifery and allied health resources  provided free of charge on the Internet. Each resource has been evaluated and categorised by subject specialists based at UK universities.


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1.3.9 Internet resources

There are many websites where you will find useful information on health and lifestyle. With all information on the internet you need to make a judgement on the reliability of the information.