2.3 McDonaldisation

George Ritzer (1993; 2004) has coined the term ‘McDonaldisation’ to describe the way in which, increasingly, things are produced in similar, standardised ways, updating, amplifying and extending Weber's theory of rationalisation. Ritzer points out that he does not bear any particular animosity towards McDonald's: ‘It is no better or worse than most other fast-food restaurants and other manifestations of the rationalization process. I have labeled the process of concern here "M
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2.2 Standardised products

While Theodore Levitt's (1983) classic article about the globalisation of markets accepted that there are fundamental disparities across different local contexts that have to be accommodated (for example, Japan's auto exporters had to adjust to the fact that the USA and continental Europe, unlike Japan, drive on the right), he argued that there was an underlying uniformity in human tastes. Levitt's vision of the globalisation of markets was that it created opportunities for firms to offer glo
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2.1 Introduction

Globalisation is used in different contexts to mean quite different things. According to the prestigious Economist magazine's Pocket Strategy: The Essentials of Business Strategy from A to Z, globalisation is: ‘The marketing of uniform products around the globe, based on an idea put forward by Harvard's Theodore Levitt in an article published in the Harvard Business Review in 1983’ (The Economist Books, 1998, p. 88). In his article ‘The globalization of ma
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1.2 Aims

The aims of this unit are:

  • to explore the processes that link local practices to global contexts;

  • to identify key dimensions of globalisation and explore its implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts;

  • to compare approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities;

  • to illustrate how viable interpretat
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1.1 The wider context

This unit explores the management of local knowledge-generating practices with regard to their wider contexts. Although these local practices might be considered in terms of individuals acting and thinking as if they were autonomous, independent agents interacting with other agents, such practices are simultaneously shaped by shared skills and understandings. As Karl Marx pointed out, when the hero of Daniel Defoe's (1660–1731) novel Robinson Crusoe (Defoe, 1994, first published in 1
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5 Summary

In this unit we have focused on effective management of the routine activities of a project. I began by considering what a manager can do to ensure that tasks and activities start on time. You should now be able to take the steps that are required to implement a project. Appropriate people need to be appointed to teams and to be clear about individual and group responsibilities. The accommodation and equipment must be secured, together with ensuring that the necessary resources are in place t
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4.2.7 Implementing the solution

Getting agreement will not in itself ensure effective implementation. An action plan is needed, to set out exactly what each person now has to do. Your adjusted project plan (especially the critical path diagram and Gantt chart) and observation of what is happening should enable you to monitor how the recommended actions are being carried out.

In Example 8 the leader of a children and families team describes how they tackled a quality problem as part of a project to improve the process
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4.2.6 Getting agreement to the chosen solution

It is important to establish consensus as far as possible within the project team on the best solution, and to record your decision. Depending on your reporting arrangements and the severity of the problem, you may then need to prepare a formal report with recommendations for action and take it to the project sponsor(s) for agreement. Solutions have to be ‘sold’ to ensure that they are acceptable.

4.2.5 Choosing the best option

When you have collected a broad range of options, each possible solution should be assessed for its feasibility. As the feasible options are narrowed down, you may choose to analyse three or four in detail. Appraise the possible consequences of implementing each of these, against your criteria for cost, time and quality.

4.2.4 Collecting possible solutions

This is the most creative part of the problem-solving process: it involves breaking the mindset within which situations are normally interpreted. Brainstorming is a good way to generate new approaches, by making sure that even apparently ridiculous ideas are not thrown out in the initial stages. Brainstorming has two basic principles:

  • quantity is more important than quality, in the creative phase;

  • critical comments are not allowed, at
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • explore the relationship between sport and the media and understand that this is a social relationship;

  • understand how sport is part of wider cultural relations and, especially of popular culture;

  • look at how the media create sporting heroes through the stories they tell.

Dialogue - intro to the Aeneid.
have a look at John Piazza's useful website. (Just Google for John Piazza Latin) if you have not yet encountered John's website, I highly recommend it. John is one of the moderators over at Latin Best Practices - also a very useful resource and email list, where everyone of any consequence in the English speaking latin language educational community, intereste in a communicative approach to Language learning, is signed up as a member. (once again, just google for it, it is a yahoo based list)
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5.2 The social construction of reality

What do we mean when we say reality is socially constructed? We inhabit a social world. Many of the ‘facts’ of our lives which we take for granted are ‘facts’ only in so far as we hold common mental models about them: for example, common understandings of money, contracts, marriage, the rules of the road, democracy, to name just a few. To understand the nature of social influences on decision making we need to start from this idea that the environment within which we exist a
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The crucial role of physical activity in the prevention and management of overweight and obesity
Steven Blair is a Professor in the Departments of Exercise Science and Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina. His research focuses on the associations between lifestyle and health, with a specific emphasis on exercise, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic disease. He has published over 400 papers and chapters in the scientific literature, and was the Senior Scientific Editor for the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical
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4.651 Art Since 1940 (MIT)
This subject focuses on the objects, history, context, and critical discussion surrounding art since World War II. Because of the burgeoning increase in art production, the course is necessarily selective. We will trace major developments and movements in art up to the present, primarily from the US; but we will also be looking at art from Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East, as well as art "on the margins" — art that has been overlooked by the mainstream cri
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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

3.2 Mental health as business: introducing the debate

Is mental health a business? There are a number of signs that it could be, and Activity 8 presents a discussion between two people with strong views on mental health services and how they should be delivered. Dr Harvey Gordon is a forensic psychiatrist who has been a long-term consultant at Broadmoor High Security Hospital, and also a consultant at the Maudesley Hospital in London. Jim Read has worked for many years in organisations and networks of mental health service users/survivors as a c
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TEDx McMaster U - Cybernetic Orchestra
Directed by Dr. David Ogborn
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Marquette students speaks about studying abroad in Madrid
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Trout stream that runs through a California coastal forest
Streams carry sediment and nutrients from runoff but are sensitive to pollution. Organisms inhabiting streams have adaptations to hold tightly to the substrate, much like in the intertidal zone. Parts of a stream may be shaded from sunlight, limiting photosynthesis.
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