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2 Operations, operations management and operations managers
Operations management is one of the central functions of all organisations whether producing goods or services, or in the private, public or voluntary sectors. This unit will provide you with a basic framework for understanding this function and discusses the role of operations managers, in particular the importance of focusing on suppliers and customers.
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3 Unit summary

This unit should have given you some idea of the issues surrounding the concept of innovation, in particular the key concepts of invention and innovation, and the negative as well as the positive effects that innovations can bring. Although the business functions have been recognised in passing, you should be able to see how the functioning of an organisation can be affected by innovation. Remember that although innovation can take place within any one function of the organisation, this can
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International Media Flows: Global Media and Culture
Ian Condry introduces five graduates of the Comparative Media Studies Program—Aswin Punathambekar, Xiaochang Li, Jing Wang, Orit Kuritsky, Ana Domb —in this final panel, who share their views and experiences about the international/global dimension of the program.

‘Comparative’ can be interpr

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7.6 Who should estimate?

The person managing the project is not necessarily the best one to prepare the estimates, although they should be closely involved, both as a source of information and because they need a clear understanding of what the estimates mean and what the estimators assume about outputs, inputs and the transformation process. If there are others who have more experience or more knowledge about some of the areas of work, these people may be the best ones to make estimates for the project or parts of i
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Acknowledgements
We now live in a global village where distance in no longer a barrier to commercial or social contact. This unit will enable you to gain an understanding of the information and communication technologies that drive our networked world and how they now permeate our everyday lives.
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2.3 ICTs and you
We now live in a global village where distance in no longer a barrier to commercial or social contact. This unit will enable you to gain an understanding of the information and communication technologies that drive our networked world and how they now permeate our everyday lives.
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2.1Networked devices you use every day
We now live in a global village where distance in no longer a barrier to commercial or social contact. This unit will enable you to gain an understanding of the information and communication technologies that drive our networked world and how they now permeate our everyday lives.
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1.1Data and information
We now live in a global village where distance in no longer a barrier to commercial or social contact. This unit will enable you to gain an understanding of the information and communication technologies that drive our networked world and how they now permeate our everyday lives.
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4.3 Networks of objects
Enterprise systems are software applications that automate and integrate all many of the key business processes of an organisation. With some understanding of software development, you will learn about current development practices for this type of system and develop relevant skills to apply them to real-world problems. You will develop core skills in object-oriented analysis and design, allowing you to develop software that is fit for purpose, reusable and amenable to change.
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1.8 Primordial nucleosynthesis
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
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1.6 The quark-lepton era (contd)
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
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1.5 The quark-lepton era
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
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1.4 Inflation
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
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1.3 The very early Universe
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
Author(s): The Open University

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1.2 Time, space, temperature and energy
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
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1.1 A history of the Universe
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
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5 Effective use of information technology
Skills in information technology (IT) cover a broad range, from using software packages effectively to developing a critical understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of IT solutions. Developing your IT skills means planning your work, practising your skills, seeking feedback from others and reviewing your approach. In developing and assessing your IT skills, you will learn to use and adapt your skills effectively and confidently in different situations and contexts. This unit is designed to
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2 Sources of help
Skills in information technology (IT) cover a broad range, from using software packages effectively to developing a critical understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of IT solutions. Developing your IT skills means planning your work, practising your skills, seeking feedback from others and reviewing your approach. In developing and assessing your IT skills, you will learn to use and adapt your skills effectively and confidently in different situations and contexts. This unit is designed to
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6.1 Articulating your appreciation of complexity

I have organized the material in this section so that you can follow the activity route shown in Figure 6.

This section is primarily concerned with what can be understood by the term complexity, and how to compare it with the ideas of difficulty and mess. To do this, you are first asked to notice your developing understanding of complexity in Section 6.1, and then to enter a deeper engagement with the dist
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5.3 Appreciating your basis for understanding

In my experience, the explanation that Fell and Russell suggest (i.e. that we each construct our own version of reality and therefore cannot be an objective observer; which in turn means we have to take responsibility for our observations and explanations) is challenging for many people. When I attend workshops where these ideas are expressed for the first time, people often become angry. You may be able to identify with them. If so, please try to use your discomfort productively for your own
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