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CSCL Scripts: Modelling Features and Potential Use
The design of collaboration scripts is a new focus of research within the CSCL community. In order to support the design, communication, analysis, simulation and even execution of collaboration scripts, a general specification language to describe collaboration scripts is needed. In this paper, we analyse the suitability and limitations of IMS LD for modelling collaborative learning processes. Based on the analysis, we propose a CSCL scripting language. This paper presents the conceptual framewo
Author(s): Miao Yongwu,Hoeksema Kay,Hoppe Ulrich,Harrer Andre

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Facilitating Knowledge Convergence in Videoconferencing Environments: The Role of External Represent
The study analyzed how two types of graphical representation tools influence the way in which dyads use shared and unshared knowledge resources in different collaboration scenarios, and how learners represent and transfer shared knowledge under these different conditions. We varied the type of graphical representation (content-specific vs. contentunspecific) and the collaboration scenario (videoconferencing vs. face-to-face). 64 university students participated. Results show that learning partne
Author(s): Fischer Frank,Mandl Heinz

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Supporting information comparisons in example-based hypertext environments
Global comparisons of learning from hypertext and traditional text have yet failed to show major advantages concerning the effectiveness of hypertext learning. In the current paper it is proposed that an effective hypertext design needs to be based on thorough cognitive task analyses with regard to structures, processes, and resources that are required to benefit from a specific learning approach. This claim is illustrated by two experiments, in which we investigated two methods for supporting e
Author(s): Gerjets Peter,Scheiter Katharina,Schuh Julia

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Exploring the Design of Computer Supports for Reciprocal Tutoring
his paper explores the design of a set of system prototypes for supporting a protocol of cooperative learning activity called reciprocal tutoring. During reciprocal tutoring, two or more agents in centralized or distributed environments interact as they take turns at playing the roles of a tutor and a tutee in solving Lisp recursive problems. These agents are either real students or virtual learning companions simulated by the computer. Furthermore, in the design of a virtual tutee, which is one
Author(s): Chan Tak-Wai,Chou Chih-Yueh

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Designing and evaluating collaboration in a virtual game environment for vocational learning
Especially in vocational education, attention should be paid not only to the use of new technological solutions but also to collaborative learning and cooperative working methods in order to develop students’ skills for their future jobs. This study involves a design experiment including the design process of a new game environment, description of the script developed for this game, as well as the empirical study with multiple data collection methods, data analysis, results and conclusions for
Author(s): Hämäläinen Raija

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Directions to Acknowledge Learners’ Self-organization in CSCL Macro-scripts
In this article we present a conceptual analysis of the notion of learners’ self-organization in CSCL macro-scripts. We highlight that taking into account self-organization as an emergent feature of activity requires considering issues such as conceptual and technological tools to support learners’ self-organization, maintenance of coherence between the script pedagogical objective and the emergent organization and between the technological setting and the emergent activity.
Author(s): Tchounikine Pierre

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Balancing situativity and formality: the importance of relating a formal language to interactive gra
A situated cognition theory is presented in which situated learning is viewed from a Vygotskian perspective: the developmental situativity theory. It is assumed that learning is basically a non-symbolic inductive process that is greatly enhanced by formal systems which act as tools. Instruction should provide students with an environment containing elements to allow for situated activity as well as with appropriate formal tools. Tarski's World, which is an instructional Interactive Graphical Rep
Author(s): van der Pal Jelke,Eysink Tessa

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Situational knowledge in physics: The case of electrodynamics
Major difficulties for a novice physics problem solver are how to interpret new problems and how to combine information given in the problem with information already known. A domain expert, by contrast, has the knowledge to take full advantage of problem features at a glance. It takes a long period of practice to acquire such situational knowledge, and it would be desirable for this to be taught more effectively. As a first step, this requires information on how situational knowledge differs acr
Author(s): Savelsbergh Elwin,de Jong Ton,Ferguson-Hessler Mon

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Physics learning with a computer Algebra systems: Towards a learning environment that promotes enhan
To become proficient problem-solvers, physics students need to form a coherent and flexible understanding of problem situations they are confronted with. This is important both for solving problems and for interpreting solutions. Still, many students have only a limited representation of the problems they are working on. Therefore, we devised an instructional approach to promote students' understanding of these problems, and to support them in forming associations between problem features and so
Author(s): Savelsbergh Elwin,Ferguson-Hessler Monica G. M.,de

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Co-Lab, design considerations for a collaborative inquiry learning environment
Co-Lab is a learning environment for collaborative inquiry learning in which learners can experiment, make models, consult background information and discuss their findings. The complex learning processes in such an environment need to be supported by appropriate features in the software. In this paper we report on how, based on existing literature and specific user and usability studies, we developed a set of design guidelines that were implemented in the software.
Author(s): Savelsbergh Elwin,de Jong Ton,Van Joolingen Wouter

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What Research Has to Say About Gender-Linked Differences in CMC and Does Elementary School Children
This paper first reviews the literature on computer mediated communication (CMC) to examine whether claims about gender-linked differences in specific attitudes, styles and content in CMC have been validated. Empirical studies were limited, with considerable variation in audiences, tasks, and contexts that was related to varied outcomes. The paper next describes an empirical study on the e-mail communication of elementary school children from ten Dutch classrooms. No gender-linked preference for
Author(s): Van der Meij Hans

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Providing Efficient Event Information Management to CSCL Applications
This work aims to explore the importance of carrying out an efficient management of the event information generated from CSCL applications during the collaborative learning process. The achievement of this task first involves the design of a conceptual model of collaborative learning interaction that captures and distinguishes several high-level collaborative learning processes, which in turns leads to a computational model. To achieve that, we first define the main types of event information ge
Author(s): Daradoumis Thanasis,Caballé Santi,Xhafa Fatos

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Problems and Opportunities of Learning together in a Virtual Learning Environment
This chapter explores new ways of collaborative learning in a virtual learning environment based on our acquisition of knowledge from previous experience. We identify both the problems faced in real collaborative learning practices and the ways these problems can be overcome and become opportunities for more efficient learning. These issues concern pedagogical, organisational and technical elements and constraints that influence the successful application of collaborative learning in distance ed
Author(s): Daradoumis Thanasis,Xhafa Fatos

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Stagecast Creator™ and Webct™: An integrated use of computer programming and a virtual learning en
This paper reports on an effort to use Stagecast Creator™ as a means for developing modelling skills among undergraduate students taking an introductory course in science that took place in a virtual learning environment (WebCT™). An inquiry-based curriculum was implemented, which guided students working in small groups to collect and study moon observations and construct a series of successive models of the moon phases using Stagecast Creator™. Students’ reflective journals and reports of s
Author(s): Nicolaou Christiana Th.,Constantinou Constantinos

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Flexibility in macro-scripts for computer-supported collaborative learning
In the field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), scripts are designed to support collaboration among distant learners or co-present learners whose interactions are (at least partially) mediated by a computer. The rationale of scripts is to structure collaborative learning processes in order to trigger group interactions that may be rare in free collaboration. Fixing the degree of coercion is a delicate design choice: too rigid scripts would spoil the richness of collaborative in
Author(s): Dillenbourg Pierre,Tchounikine Pierre

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Designing integrative scripts
Scripts structure the collaborative learning process by constraining interactions, defining a sequence of activities and specifying individual roles. Scripts aim at increasing the probability that collaboration triggers knowledge generative interactions such as conflict resolution, explanation or mutual regulation. Integrative scripts are not bound to collaboration in small groups but include individual activities and class-wide activities. These pre- and poststructuring activities form the dida
Author(s): Dillenbourg Pierre,Jermann Patrick

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Virtual Learning Environments
Is the concept of 'virtual learning environment' just a popular label to describe any educational software? No, the concept includes several interesting features that justify the use of a specific label. We review these features in the first part of our contribution. Do these features guarantee pedagogical effects? No, we review in the second some potential contributions of virtual learning environments.Turning potential effects into actual outcomes is the challenge of designers.
Author(s): Dillenbourg Pierre,Schneider Daniel,Synteta Parask

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Decentralized Service Deployment for Collaborative Environments
In this paper we present the design of a system which allows service deployment in a small-sized group of computers distributed through the Internet. These groups are formed by users who share a common interest, and voluntarily yield their own resources for the achievement of the collaborative activities of the group. Having enough resources contributed by the members of the group, our system guarantees service availability and the fact that the deployment and execution of the services is carrie
Author(s): Lazaro Iglesias Daniel,Marquès Joan Manuel,Jorba

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Mechanisms of common ground in case-based web-discussions in teacher education
Previous studies suggest that before the participants in Web-based conferencing can reach deeper level interaction and learning, they have to gain an adequate level of common ground in terms of shared mutual understanding, knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and presuppositions (Clark & Schaefer, 1989; Dillenbourg, 1999). In this paper, the main purpose is to explore how participants establish and maintain common ground in order to reach deeper level interaction in case-based Web-discussions. The s
Author(s): Mäkitalo Kati,Häkkinen Päivi,Leinonen Piritta,J

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E-learning environments in medical education: how pervasive computing can influence the educational
As pervasive computing is integrated incrementally with all facets of everyday life, it is reasonable to expect that its further proliferation may influence educational activities as well. Several such arguments have been thoroughly discussed in literature and several projects have been developed. However, little work has been done to investigate how pervasive computing can influence the medical educational process using e-learning platforms, and the prerequisites for such endeavours. In this pi
Author(s): Konstantinidis Stathis,Bamidis Panagiotis D.

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