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3.1 A knowledge management technology framework

In the introduction to a book on knowledge management technologies, Borghoff and Pareschi (1998) described a framework for organisational memory that has been developed within Xerox to promote understanding of the roles and interplay between different technologies (Figure 4).

Figure 4
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2.4 Codification and formalisation continued

An important point is that the process of ‘objectifying’ knowledge brings with it a gradual change in the knowledge represented, because content and form are inextricably linked. McLuhan's famous quotation ‘the medium is the message’ highlights this phenomenon, but overstates the case a little. We can say that the medium shapes the message, as follows:

Figure 3
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2.3.1 From tacit pre-understanding to symbolic representation

This section reflects many of the critiques that have been made of efforts to apply technology to knowledge work without taking seriously the differences between human and artificial knowledge representations. Stahl (1993a,b) has presented an informative analysis of the transformation of knowledge from tacit to explicit to formally codified representations in computer-interpretable form, emphasising the centrality of interpretation situated in the workplace (Figure 2).

Stahl also seeks
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2.3 Codification and formalisation

Much of the knowledge management literature argues the importance of making tacit knowledge explicit, and then codified. For instance, an explicit goal when auditing intellectual capital is to identify human capital as one of the key assets that give an organisation its true value. Some organisations are realising that a large quantity of their ‘assets’ leave the office for home each evening, perhaps never to return, and as a consequence want to capture these in a less vulnerable for
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1.4 Aims

The aims of this unit are:

  • to develop an understanding of the relationships between information, interpretation, knowledge and computer-based representations

  • to summarise the range of different technologies that are available and on the horizon, and how they relate to different kinds of knowledge processes

  • to provide frameworks for thinking about technologies for managing knowledge, and for evaluating the claims made
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1 Knowledge technologies in context

There are many non-technological dimensions to understanding what it might mean to ‘manage knowledge’. However, technology is a thread weaving throughout, and seems now to be a fixture in knowledge management conferences and publications. ‘Knowledge’ can be managed as an objectified asset is a core idea in knowledge management. This unit will encourage you to question what this means in different contexts. ‘Context’ allows us to considere what value is added by view
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the following issues, explaining in your own words, with appropriate examples:

  • the importance of representation, interpretation and formalisation in relation to ICT and managing knowledge;

  • the concept of a ‘community of practice’ in relation to ICT;

  • the main functions that ICT can play in helping to manage knowledge;

  • the potential, an
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Introduction

Knowledge technologies embody formal models of how the world works. If well designed, these models can relieve people of mundane activities and free them up to concentrate on what they do best. At their best, knowledge technologies can detect patterns in information which are too complex for humans to detect, or which they do not have time to detect, and can deliver this information to the right people, at the right time, in the right form for interpretation. This unit looks at the cor
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4.2 Pose

Pose followed expression on the list of the portrait photographer's priorities. A sitter's pose was intended to assist idealization by highlighting physical beauty. Photographers were required to select a pose that displayed the sitter to advantage.

If your sitter be tall and thin, or short and stout, select a pose which may render such peculiarities least prominent …A sitter's personal defects may be freque
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3.4 Characterisation and sexual stereotyping

In attempting to characterise their sitters, 19th-century commercial photographers did not intend or attempt any serious psychoanalytical exploration of individual character such as we perceive it today in our post-Freudian world. They sought instead to stereotype by age and sex within a narrow range of positive virtues, which had previously been approved, within the conventions of painting: modesty, simplicity and chastity for women; dignity, strength and nobility for men.

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Dynamics and Stability
This course will the student provide a background in advanced methods of dynamics and their application to relevant problems in aerospace engineering. The course is given in lecture form, and includes various elaborated example problems relevant for aerospace engineering. course content: Principles of dynamics: Newton's laws, motion with respect to non-inertial reference frames, fictitious forces, conservative systems, phase portraits, virtual work. Lagrangian dynamics: Generalised coordin
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Sextant Solutions
The earliest explorers did not have computers or satellites to help them know their exact location. The most accurate tool developed was the sextant to determine latitude and longitude. In this activity, the sextant is introduced and discussed with the class. Students will learn how a sextant can be a reliable tool that is still being used by today's navigators and how computers can help assure accuracy when measuring angles. Also, this activity will show how computers can be used to understand
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Surgical Resident for a Day
In this activity, students will become surgical residents for the day. As a team, they will be asked to use surgical instruments to complete a task inside of a black box. They will be able to see inside of the box with the help of a "laparoscope" (webcam and flashlight). This activity is intended to show the students one application of medical instruments, as well as to allow them to see first had how form fits function. They will also realize that an engineer's job does not end with a finished
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Classroom Triangles
In this activity, students will use bearing measurements to triangulate and determine objects' locations. Working in teams of two or three, students must put on their investigative hats as they take bearing measurements to specified landmarks in their classroom (or other rooms in the school) from a "mystery location." With the extension activity, students are challenged with creating their own map of the classroom or other school location and comparing it with their classmates' efforts.
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Sneaking Up On Sneakers
This activity explores why different types of sneakers are used in a variety of common sports. It connects how engineers analyze design needs in sneakers and everyday items. The goal is for students to understand the basics of engineering associated with the design of different types of athletic shoes. Sneakers are one of the most commonly worn shoes in our American culture. They provide comfortable support for our feet as we go about our active lives as students, athletes, educators, and engine
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Discovering Friction
With a simple demonstration activity, students are introduced to the concept of friction as a force that impedes motion when two surfaces are in contact. Then, in the Associated Activity (Sliding and Stuttering), they work in teams to use a spring scale to drag an object such as a ceramic coffee cup along a table top or the floor. The spring scale allows them to measure the frictional force that exists between the moving cup and the surface it slides on. By modifying the bottom surface of the cu
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • evaluate technical descriptions of communication protocols and demonstrate your understanding of their operation;

  • describe the characteristics of circuit-switched and packet-switched networks, and of connectionless and connection-oriented modes in packet-switched networks;

  • describe the role played by primitives in the OSI reference model;

  • explain how ‘vertical’ and ‘hori
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1.1 Supporting the professionals

To gain a better understanding of the teaching assistant's role, it is helpful to consider the ways in which different kinds of professionals are supported by paraprofessionals. Just as there are teaching assistants in schools, there are equivalent roles in other areas of work. For instance, in the health service the work of nurses is supported by ‘health care assistants’, and in social work ‘personal assistants’ provide support to children in care (‘looked-after chil
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit, you should:

  • be able to discuss how the UK's teaching assistant workforce came into being;

  • be developing your understanding that teaching assistants are part of a wider, paraprofessional workforce in the public services of health, social services and education;

  • have insights into the diverse roles and responsibilities of teaching assistants, and their distinctive contributions across the UK;

  • be able to identify
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How serious a threat does Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula represent to Yemen and the West?
Fawaz A. Gerges is a Professor of Middle Eastern Politics and International Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He also holds the Emirates Chair of the Contemporary Middle East and is the Director of the Middle East Centre at LSE. Gerges is author of two recently acclaimed books: Journey of the Jihadist: Inside Muslim Militancy (Harcourt Press, 2007), and The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global (Cambridge University Press, 2005). The Washington Post selected The Far E
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