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1.5 The quark-lepton era
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
Author(s): The Open University

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1.4 Inflation
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
Author(s): The Open University

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1.3 The very early Universe
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
Author(s): The Open University

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1.2 Time, space, temperature and energy
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
Author(s): The Open University

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1.1 A history of the Universe
The ‘Big Bang’ is said to be the origin of our Universe. This unit will help you to comprehend what happened in the moments immediately after the Big Bang and during the initial cooling period. You will also gain an understanding of how this event turned in to the Universe we live in today.
Author(s): The Open University

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5 Effective use of information technology
Skills in information technology (IT) cover a broad range, from using software packages effectively to developing a critical understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of IT solutions. Developing your IT skills means planning your work, practising your skills, seeking feedback from others and reviewing your approach. In developing and assessing your IT skills, you will learn to use and adapt your skills effectively and confidently in different situations and contexts. This unit is designed to
Author(s): The Open University

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2 Sources of help
Skills in information technology (IT) cover a broad range, from using software packages effectively to developing a critical understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of IT solutions. Developing your IT skills means planning your work, practising your skills, seeking feedback from others and reviewing your approach. In developing and assessing your IT skills, you will learn to use and adapt your skills effectively and confidently in different situations and contexts. This unit is designed to
Author(s): The Open University

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6.1 Articulating your appreciation of complexity

I have organized the material in this section so that you can follow the activity route shown in Figure 6.

This section is primarily concerned with what can be understood by the term complexity, and how to compare it with the ideas of difficulty and mess. To do this, you are first asked to notice your developing understanding of complexity in Section 6.1, and then to enter a deeper engagement with the dist
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5.3 Appreciating your basis for understanding

In my experience, the explanation that Fell and Russell suggest (i.e. that we each construct our own version of reality and therefore cannot be an objective observer; which in turn means we have to take responsibility for our observations and explanations) is challenging for many people. When I attend workshops where these ideas are expressed for the first time, people often become angry. You may be able to identify with them. If so, please try to use your discomfort productively for your own
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5.1 The state of ‘Being’

The structure of Section 5 is set out in Figure 8. Use this as a way of keeping track of the argument I am making.

Figure 8
Figure 8: An activity-sequence
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2.3 Appreciating epistemological issues

Common sense tells me my experience and understanding of the world are limited. I am 173 cm in height. That limits my view of the world. It may not matter much that I cannot see what my house looks like from above but it does mean there will be things going on in the roof I may not notice until they impinge on areas that I can experience.

More significantly, there is a real limitation on understanding the experiences of other people. You might tell me about your experience but your desc
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2.1 The nature of systems thinking and systems practice

There are no simple definitions for either systems thinking or systems practice. It's difficult to find definitions that capture all the perspectives that the ideas carry for people who think of themselves as systems thinkers and systems practitioners. Most systems practitioners seem to experience the same kind of difficulty in explaining what they do or what it means to be systemic in their thinking. Through experience I've developed some criteria by which I characterize systems thinking, bu
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Use Photomerge Exposure in Manual mode
Learn how to use the new Photomerge Exposure feature in Photoshop Elements 8 to combine images with different exposures into one perfect image. See why Manual mode is best when combining images that were taken with and without flash.
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7.2 Revenues

Projects vary in how they are eventually financed. They can be purely commercial projects from which the products are sold at market prices, and so eventually the revenues they generate are expected to cover the costs and provide an operating profit. In the meantime, development costs and working capital have to be financed from share and loan capital raised by the organisation, the cost of which will be met from the profit the project makes. At the other extreme there are projects, in both f
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7.1 Introduction

Planning a project includes preparation of financial and related projections. Frequently, these will be used to:

  • weigh up the economic feasibility of the project;

  • obtain approval from a higher authority in the organisation for the project to proceed;

  • set boundaries of delegation or empowerment in a formal budget;

  • provide the basis for accounting for project revenues and costs;

  • provide
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5.2 Work breakdown

A work breakdown structure enables:

  • the work of a project to be divided into ‘packages’;

  • these ‘packages’ can be further subdivided into ‘elements’;

  • these elements are then divided into individual ‘tasks’.

This structure provides a basis for estimating the time and effort required. In a large project, the work breakdown structure might allow packages of work
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2.1 Introduction

The planning process aims to demonstrate how the project outcomes will be achieved successfully within both the required timescale, the agreed budget and the required quality. As each project is different, there are a number of ways of taking an overview of a project. Two of these are:

  • the project life-cycle, which is a useful way of understanding the different phases of a project as it progresses, and

  • the classic six-stage project ma
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5 Conclusion

The idea of the double whammy brings together the two driving forces behind changes in industrial structure, with which this unit opened and now closes. The use of a new technology causes a decline in the costs of production, which in turn encourages a rapid take-up by consumers of products embodying the new technology. This unit has explored the factors affecting consumer demand. While the price of the product was found to be of crucial importance, socio-economic influences such as culture a
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2.3 Other influences on market demand

What about other variables which may affect demand? Let us consider four such variables. As is often the case in economics, the first two points involve understanding some rather formal relationships between variables, in this case price and income.

  1. The price of other goods. Two goods x and y are known as substitutes if the quantity demanded of good x increases after a rise in the price of good y. The
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6.4 After the school experience review
Mentoring, observation and interviews are three important strategies in developing student teachers. This unit, which gives a flavour of the Open University's flexible PGCE course, introduces student–teacher centred strategies both inside and outside of the classroom involving mentors, pupils, tutors and others to develop student teachers' professional skills and understanding.
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