Desegregation Mandate: Jefferson County, AL
A 1967 federal court order resulted in this document, which mandated school desegregation in Birmingham.
The United States and the Mexican Revolution: "A Danger for All Latin American Countries," Letters f
In 1911, Mexicans overthrew a long-standing dictator and brought Francisco I. Madero to power. Two years later, a new repressive dictator, General Victoriano Huerta, deposed and murdered Madero. The Constitutionalists, led in part by liberal reformer Venustiano Carranza, undertook an armed revolt against Huerta's rule. When President Woodrow Wilson took office in 1913, he refused to recognize Huerta's counterrevolutionary government. Moreover, using the slim pretext of a minor insult to the U.S.
The Big Strike : A Journalist Describes the 1934 San Francisco Strike
On May 9, 1934, International Labor Association (ILA) leaders called a strike of all dockworkers on the West Coast who were joined a few days later by seamen and teamsters, effectively stopping all shipping from San Diego to Seattle. San Francisco would become the scene of the strike's most dramatic and widely known incidents, aptly described in one headline as "War in San Francisco!" On Bloody Thursday, July 5, 1934, two strikers were killed by the San Francisco police. A mass funeral march of
"Must a Fellow Wait to Die?": Workers Write to Frances Perkins
Silicosis, a deadly lung disease caused when workers inhale fine particles of silica dust—a mineral found in sand, quartz, and granite—became a national cause célèbre during the Great Depression when it was recognized as a significant disease among lead, zinc, and silver miners, sandblasters, and foundry and tunnel workers. In 1938 the federal government declared silicosis America's number one industrial health problem and Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins convened a National Silicosis Co
"I Always Had Pads with Me": A G.I. Artist's Sketchpad, 1943-1944
In the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor and the declaration of war, thousands of Americans enlisted in the U.S. armed forces. Among them was twenty-year-old Bronx resident Ben Hurwitz. Like many of the men and women who entered military service, Hurwitz (who changed his name to Brown after the war) kept a record of his experiences. But his "journal" was a sketchpad, and, during his two years in North Africa and Italy, Corporal Hurwitz drew and painted at every opportunity. Hurwitz's pictures a
A Year's Wage for Three Peaches: A Black Man Tells of Exploitation in the Late 19th century South
The harsh brutality of race relations in the late nineteenth-century South was sometimes best expressed through small incidents. For William Robinson, the story that best encapsulated his own experience growing up African-American in rural Georgia in the 1880s involved three peaches. He was interviewed by oral historian Charles Hardy in 1983 when Robinson was 103 years old. Apparently, some ninety-five years earlier when he was eight years old, three black boys sneaked into a peach orchard on th
"I Just Loved that School": Henrietta Chief Recalls an Indian Boarding School in the Early 20th cent
In this 1970 interview with University of South Dakota historian Herbert Hoover, Henrietta Chief, A Winnebago, talks of her religious conversion at the Tomah School in the first decade of the 20th century. The Tomah school was one of the federal government's off-reservation boarding schools, the linchpin of federal policy after 1887 to Americanize and assimilate Indian youth by removing them from their home environment and culture. Henrietta Chief's conversion made her a fervent apostle of Chris
Killing the Messenger: Ida Wells-Barnett Protests a Postmaster's Murder in 1898
The rising tide of lynchings of African Americans across the South launched a national anti-lynching crusade, led by Memphis, Tennessee, newspaper editor Ida Wells-Barnett, an outspoken advocate for the area's African-American citizens. As the leader of the national anti-lynching movement, Wells-Barnett joined a group of Illinois congressmen who visited the White House in March, 1898, to protest the murder of the newly-appointed Lake City, South Carolina Postmaster Baker, who was black. Wells-Ba
Ice Core Gateway: Vostok Ice Core CO2 Data
The Vostok ice core has a long record of global carbon dioxide concentrations, with variations caused by factors other than photosynthesis and human activity. Ice core data sets from three different authors are available for download. Users can also link to other NOAA paleoclimate projects and information.
Model United Nations Headquarters
Model United Nations (UN) is an authentic simulation of the U.N. General Assembly and other multilateral bodies. This Headquarters homepage offers an 'ask an ambassador' section, an overview of the Model UN, FAQ, information on how to get started and how to prepare for a conference. Users can also follow links to several interactive forums, a conference calendar, additional links and e-news.
The High Plains: Land of Extremes
This website is dedicated to the High Plains: Land of Extremes Exercise. This exercise covers the physical features of the High Plains (or Great Plains), the grasses and plants of the area, prairie dog ecosystems, riparian areas, mining, management, water resources, and fire cycles. Student activities are based on the study of groundwater movement, energy resources, wind energy, and riparian areas. A debate allows students to understand the viewpoints of different interest groups in considering
The Living Edens: Virtual Yellowstone Tour
This Starting Point page describes a virtual tour of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming featured on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) website. In this tour, students act as park rangers to research geological features of Yellowstone, locate these features on maps, and describe and define associated geologic terms. The features discussed include geysers, hot springs, canyons, waterfalls and mudpots. On this page, users can find learning goals, teaching notes and tips, teaching materials, as
The Moon Phases java applet provides an animated view of the moon, either from Earth, or from above the ecliptic. The animation changes phases and can be seen from a top view, earth view or both. The page also provides vocabulary terms for each of the phases and other interesting information.
Home, Home on the River
In this case study activity, students will examine the complex issues that result from human use of ecologically sensitive areas. The students will investigate these issues from the point of view of their major/career path. This example page is part of the Starting Point collection and was adapted from the Lifelines Online case study. Users can access information about the exercise's learning goals, context for use, teaching notes and tips, teaching materials, assessment ideas, references and to
From Mutual Assured Destruction to Star Wars
Caspar Weinberger served as U.S. president Ronald Reagan's secretary of defense from 1981 to 1987. In this video segment, Weinberger explains how deployment of the MX missile stopped the Soviet Union from believing it could successfully launch a first strike, which he feels is 'the essence of deterrence.' A better alternative to 'mutual assured destruction,' he argues, is the Strategic Defense Initiative, the Reagan administration's hotly contested proposal to design space-based weapons that cou
Sun, Moon, and Feather
'This hybrid musical comedy/documentary traces the life and times of three Native American sisters growing up in Brooklyn. The program combines song and dance reenactments of family and tribal stories with home movies taken over a thirty-year period.' Amid both miniature and full-scale sets depicting the family's crowded apartment, details of the lives of the three Miguel daughters and their parents emerge. Often, the narration of the three adult performers overlaps, contradicting and affirming
The Arms Dynamic in Regional Politics
Agha Ibrahim Akram was a lieutenant general who served in the Pakistan Army during the 1965 and 1971 wars with India. In this video segment, Akram recalls 1974 as the watershed year when India detonated a nuclear explosive and took one step toward becoming a nuclear power in hopes of enhancing its global status. That moment also coincided with skyrocketing oil prices, which stiffened Pakistan's resolve to develop nuclear energy for electricity and, if need be, weapons. The interview Akram conduc
Created by video artist Burt Barr, 'Aeros' is an impressionistic behind-the-scenes look at the Trisha Brown Dance Company as they rehearse, stage, and perform her choreographed work in a variety of settings, including Moscow, New York, France, and Florida. Here we see members of the Tricia Brown Dance Company during a rehearsal for the performance piece.
Kissing Booth, The
Documentary-style piece in which four celebrities (Quentin Crisp -author, Emily XYZ -poet, Joe Morton -actor, Spider -musician) talk about kissing, seduction, relationships, love, sex, and romance in the U.S., England, and South Africa. Speakers muse about the subjects and talk about their own personal experiences. Shots of speakers talking directly to the camera are interspersed with straightforward and computer-enhanced scenes of couples kissing. Approximately 28 minutes in length.
California School Garden Network Curriculum
The curriculum section provides over one hundred garden-based lessons to create, expand, and sustain garden-based learning experiences. It offers practical ideas and resources for every level of garden-based learning from sprouting seeds to understanding the food system. This curriculum section was compiled by the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Garden-Based Learning Workgroup. The content for this section was borrowed, with permission, from various resour