1.6.3 Fiscal retrenchment?

If we turn to fiscal issues, at the time of entry to the EU in 2004, six of the ten entry countries had government deficits in excess of the SGP/ Maastricht Treaty 3 per cent of GDP rule: the Czech Republic (−5.9 per cent), Cyprus (−4.6 per cent), Hungary (−4.9 per cent), Malta (−5.9 per cent), Poland (−6.0 per cent) and Slovakia (−4.1 per cent). Thus these countries would be required to cut back on their public expenditures or increase taxes so as to
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1.6.2 Joining the Euro-zone

For all the new members there will be a process of ‘catching up’ with the older members before the former can join the Euro-zone. The GDP gap between them remains considerable. In 2002 the GDP per capita was 60 per cent of the EU average for Slovenia and the Czech Republic (in PPP terms (see the footnote to Table 1 for an explanation of PPP)), it slid to 50 per cent for Hungary, 40 per cent for Poland, Estonia and L
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Introduction

In this unit you will find a discussion of the national curriculam framework in Scotland. This is discussed in terms of the literacy curricula, and compared to the framework set up in England and Wales.

This comparison reveals differing emphases on a number of themes. For example, individual child-centred approaches are evident in the Scottish Curriculum Guideline developments. However, a uniform approach to all children is privileged in the whole-class approaches in the English Nation
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