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Towards a Pattern Language for Intelligent Teaching and Training Systems
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) are usually based on similar fundamental structures. In contrast to this, software engineering techniques are seldomly used for realizing ITSs. In the last years, some approaches tried to change this: pattern mining took place; methods covering the specifics of ITS project development have been deployed. These approaches usually focus on a specific system type or on a certain application domain. What is missing is a combination of all the different approaches
Author(s): Harrer Andreas,Martens Alke

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Analysis Methods for Collaborative Models and Activities
A classification of analysis methods for CSCL systems is presented which uses as one dimension the distinction into summary analysis and structural analysis and as another distinction different types of raw data: either user actions or state descriptions. The Cool Modes environment for collaborative modeling enables us to explore the whole spectrum of analysis methods. Action logging is based on the MatchMaker communication server underlying Cool Modes. Example instances for several analysis met
Author(s): Gaßner Katrin,Jansen Marc,Harrer Andreas,Herrmann

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The Remote Control Approach – An Architecture for Tutoring in Pre-existing Collaborative Applicatio
In this paper we present an architecture for the integration of tutoring and process scaffolds into existing collaborative applications. The architecture allows to combine existing research results concerning collaborative processes and their formalization, and existing and tested collaborative learning environments. The architecture allows controlling the learning environments either by a human or a pedagogic agent. Both types of tutors are using the same set of primitives – either via an intu
Author(s): Harrer Andreas,Malzahn Nils,Roth Benedikt

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The Remote Control Approach - How to Apply Scaffolds to Existing Collaborative Learning Environments
In this paper we present an architecture for the integration of tutoring and process scaffolds into existing collaborative applications. The architecture allows to combine existing research results concerning collaborative processes and their formalization, and existing and tested collaborative learning environments. The architecture allows to control the learning environments either by a human or a pedagogic agent. Both types of tutors are using the same set of primitives - either via an intuit
Author(s): Harrer Andreas,Malzahn Nils,Roth Benedikt

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Cooperation scripts for learning via web-based discussion boards and videoconferencing
Computer-supported collaborative learning often means that locally distant learners discuss a task via text-based discussion boards or videoconferencing. Collaborative learning, however, is often suboptimal with respect to how learners work on the concepts that are supposed to be learned and how learners interact with each other. Collaborative learning environments may be improved by scripts that structure epistemic activities and social interactions of learners. Two studies are being reported t
Author(s): Weinberger Armin,Ertl Bernhard,Fischer Frank,Mandl

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Analyzing Sequential Data in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
Representations and changes between them play a major role in cognitive development (e.g., Vosniadou, & Brewer, 1992) and education (e.g., Hewson, Beeth, & Thorley, 1998). By definition, change of representations is also indispensable for collaborative work since a common understanding or shared knowledge can only be achieved by a partial convergence of the knowledge structures of the collaborating subjects. This articles presents and discusses knowledge tracking (KT), viz., an approach to analy
Author(s): Janetzko Dietmar,Fischer Frank

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"What I think works well...": Learners’ evaluation and actual usage of online tools
This paper will describe and analyse data gathered during a pilot language course run fully online and based on a Moodle VLE. The new online tools, whether as part of an integrated VLE or separately, lend themselves to reflective learning (e.g. blogs) or collaborative group activities (e.g. wikis). This case study of two learners is based on the project “CyberDeutsch” at the Department of Languages of the Open University, a five week, intensive German course offered to self-selected intermedia
Author(s): Stickler Ursula,Hampel Regine

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Blended Learning Technologies in Lifelong Education: Lessons Learned from a Case Study
The combination of the traditional form of education and e-learning activities (blended learning) constitutes an important possibility for the higher education, so that they reach the flexibility which is considered to be necessary for their adaptation to the trainees’ needs within the frame of socio-cognitive needs created by the information society. We present the principles of the application of blended lesson designs in graduate level and of its evaluation by the students. Based on our expe
Author(s): Liotsios Konstantinos,Demetriadis Stavros,Pomborts

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Bridging the Contextual Distance: The e-CASE Learning Environment for Supporting Students’ Context
Supporting students’ awareness of the complex way that contextual issues affect knowledge application in authentic situations is a critical instructional mission and can lead to improved problem solving in the workplace. In this work we present the design of e-CASE (Context Awareness Supporting Environment), which is a case based learning environment for supporting instruction in the domain of software development. In designing e-CASE we employ a model for context which further guides the use o
Author(s): Demetriadis Stavros,Papadopoulos Pantelis,Tsoukala

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A Didactic-based Model of Scenarios for Designing an Adaptive and Context-Aware Learning System
Nowadays, technology-enhanced learning systems must have the ability to take into account the context and to allow dynamic adaptation to different learners based on substantial advances in pedagogical theories and knowledge models. The main issue is to design a generic scenario which can deal with the broadest range of learning situations. From a generic scenario, the learning system will compute on the fly a particular scenario dedicated to the current learner and its learning situation. The ma
Author(s): Tetchueng Jean Louis,Garlatti Serge,Laubé Sylvain

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Reducing cognitive load and fostering cognitive skill acquisition: Benefits of category-avoiding exa
In this paper, we provide evidence against the common idea that worked examples should be designed to convey problem categories and category-specific solution procedures. Instead we propose that instructional examples should be designed in a way that supports the understanding of relations between structural problem features and individual solution steps, i.e. relations that hold below the category level. We illustrate in the domain of probability word problems how category-avoiding instructiona
Author(s): Gerjets Peter,Scheiter Katharina,Catrambone Richar

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Can learning from molar and modular worked examples be enhanced by providing instructional explanati
In two experiments we explored how learning from traditional molar worked-out examples—focusing on problem categories and their associated overall solution procedures—as well as from more efficient modular worked-out examples—where intrinsic cognitive load is reduced by breaking down complex solutions into smaller meaningful solution elements—can be further enhanced. Instructional explanations or self-explanation prompts were administered to increase germane cognitive load. However, both int
Author(s): Gerjets Peter,Scheiter Katharina,Catrambone Richar

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Supporting Learners’ Appropriation of a Web-Based Learning Curriculum
This article presents an approach and tools that can help learners appropriate a Web-based learning curriculum and become active participants in their learning. The approach is based on a detailed modeling of the curriculum and intends to equip the learners with different computer-based tools facilitating a multiple point of view perception of the curriculum, while promoting self evaluation and self regulation of the learners’ curriculum performance. The proposed architecture is generic and can
Author(s): Rasseneur-Coffinet Dorothee,Smyrniou Georgia,Tchou

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Reflections on Success: A retrospective of the mLearn conference series 2002-2005
mLearn is now in its fifth year. Although mobile learning has a much longer history, the inauguration of a conference for learning in the mobile age marked an important point in its development. This paper takes a retrospective look at the mLearn conferences from 2002 through to 2005; reflecting on our progress in order to facilitate the transition of mobile learning from a novel research concept into a viable means of providing meaningful learning opportunities “across generations and cultures
Author(s): Naismith Laura,Corlett Dan

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The impact of example comparisons on schema acquisition: Do learners really need multiple examples?
Comparing multiple examples within problem categories is usually considered a necessary prerequisite for schema acquisition. However, there is an evident lack of conclusive empirical evidence supporting this claim. Moreover, there are findings indicating that carefully designed one-example conditions may allow for profitable processes of example comparison as well. In line with this reasoning, we present an experiment - that builds up on a series of studies conducted by Quilici and Mayer (1996)
Author(s): Scheiter Katharina,Gerjets Peter,Schuh Julia

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Exploratory Test of an Automated Knowledge Elicitation and Organization Tool
his paper combines the contents of two papers that were presented at the ITS 98 conference one focusing on knowledge representation (Shute, 1998) and the other describing a knowledge elicitation tool (Shute, Torreano, & Willis, 1998). There are three main purposes of this paper. First, as a means to stress instructional and assessment implications of different knowledge types, we will briefly overview knowledge representations. Second, we describe a novel cognitive tool designed to aid in knowle
Author(s): Shute Valerie J.,Torreano Lisa A.,Willis Ross E.

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Embedded Training for Complex Information Systems
One approach to providing affordable operator training in the workplace is to augment applications with intelligent embedded training systems (ETS). Intelligent embedded training is highly interactive: trainees practice realistic problem-solving tasks on the prime application with guidance and feedback from the training system. This article makes three contributions to the theory and technology of ETS design. First, we describe a framework based on Normanâs "stages of user activity" model for d
Author(s): Cheikes Brant A,Geier Marty,Hyland Rob,Linton Fran

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Learning physics with a computer algebra system
To become proficient problem-solvers, physics students need to form a coherent and flexible understanding of problem situations with which they are confronted. Still, many students have only a limited representation of the problems on which they are working. Therefore, an instructional approach was devised to promote students' understanding of these problems and to support them in forming associations between problem features and solution methods. The approach was based on using the computer alg
Author(s): Savelsbergh Elwin,de Jong Ton,Ferguson-Hessler Mon

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Combining heuristics and formal methods in a tool for supporting simulation-based discovery learning
This paper describes the design of a tool to support learners in simulation-based discovery learning environments. The design redesigns and extents a previous tool to overcome issues that came up in a classroom learning setting. The tool focuses on supporting learners with experimentation to identify or test hypotheses. The aim is not only to support learning domain knowledge, but also learning discovery learning skills. For this purpose the tool uses heuristics and formal methods to assess the
Author(s): Veermans Koen,Van Joolingen Wouter

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Computer support for collaborative learning: foundations for a CSCL community
Proceedings of CSCL 2002 Boulder, Colorado, USA January 7-11, 2002
Author(s): Stahl Gerry

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