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5.2 Being aware of the constraints and possibilities of the observer

It is often claimed that the essence of a systems approach is that of seeing the world in a special way. This immediately prompts the question of what is meant by the phrase ‘seeing the world’. Because we live so intimately with the world of objects, categories and people and phenomena, we tend to think our own way of seeing the world is the only way, or even of thinking, ‘Well that is my view because the world is like that’. Actually, your view is special in several separat
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3. Sustainable Aviation: Future Air Transportation and the Environment (January 21, 2009)
science, technology, engineering, aviation, aeronautics, aircraft fuel efficiency, carbon dioxide, sustainability, Global Positioning System (GPS), economics, numerical optimization, climate change, friction, drag, airplane, aerodynamics, National Aerona
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7.2 Revenues

Projects vary in how they are eventually financed. They can be purely commercial projects from which the products are sold at market prices, and so eventually the revenues they generate are expected to cover the costs and provide an operating profit. In the meantime, development costs and working capital have to be financed from share and loan capital raised by the organisation, the cost of which will be met from the profit the project makes. At the other extreme there are projects, in both f
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4 Identifying deliverables

The project brief will identify the goals of the project and may express some of these as key objectives. At an early stage of planning you will need to identify all of the project objectives and the deliverables that are implied or required from each objective.

Each objective will identify a clear outcome. The outcome is the deliverable. In some cases, the outcome will be some sort of change achieved and in other cases it will be the production of something new. In either case, the pro
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3.1 Barriers to planning

The planning stage of a project usually takes place before the activities start, but not always. In any case, planning always continues during the implementation of a project because there is always a need to change some aspects and to revise plans.

Activity 1


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3 Conclusion
If you've ever been involved in campaigning for change, you probably know that getting the desired result is much harder than it seems. Moreover, the decision to campaign on a particular issue can expose tensions and cracks within an organisation itself. This unit explores effective approaches to campaigning.
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2 Activity and questions
If you've ever been involved in campaigning for change, you probably know that getting the desired result is much harder than it seems. Moreover, the decision to campaign on a particular issue can expose tensions and cracks within an organisation itself. This unit explores effective approaches to campaigning.
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1 Problems facing campaigning organisations
If you've ever been involved in campaigning for change, you probably know that getting the desired result is much harder than it seems. Moreover, the decision to campaign on a particular issue can expose tensions and cracks within an organisation itself. This unit explores effective approaches to campaigning.
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5 Conclusion

The idea of the double whammy brings together the two driving forces behind changes in industrial structure, with which this unit opened and now closes. The use of a new technology causes a decline in the costs of production, which in turn encourages a rapid take-up by consumers of products embodying the new technology. This unit has explored the factors affecting consumer demand. While the price of the product was found to be of crucial importance, socio-economic influences such as culture a
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4.3 Industrial dynamics: knowledge and network industries

This final subsection introduces two more concepts that develop further our analysis of the dynamics of industrial structure, with particular reference to the ‘new economy’ industries. A dynamic approach to industrial change places considerable emphasis on innovation and learning, seeing firms as actively searching out innovative products and processes and learning how to produce and sell them. Some of the novelty of the new economy is reflected in the concepts used in trying to unde
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4.2 The industry life cycle

The model of the industry life cycle represents an industry as if it were a biological organism going through the stages of birth, growth, maturity and decline. This helps us to understand how a particular firm can become the ‘leader of the pack’ through innovation. In Section 2 it was explained that an economic model is a deliberate simplification of the world, which helps to provide a systematic way of thinking about causa
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4.1 Introduction

This section will explore the interaction of technology and costs with market demand in shaping industrial structure throughout the industry life cycle. Many industries begin as a numerous and turbulent group of firms jostling for position, experimenting with new and idiosyncratic products, and turn into a much smaller, more stable number of firms, making standardised products by routine methods. In this section we add a rather different view of firms to that developed in Author(s): No creator set

3.1 Introduction

In this section the focus turns towards the supply side of the market, towards firms and industries, exploring the importance of costs and technological change in the organisation of production. The objective is to understand some of the different kinds of change in industrial structure, namely changes in the number and size of firms in an industry. One such change saw the emergence of Ford, initially one among many similar firms jostling for position in the US automobile industry, as the ind
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2.1 Industry and markets: what do we mean?

Case study: Digital outsells film

Sales of digital cameras have overtaken traditional 35 mm cameras for the first time. According to monthly figures collated by national electric and photo retailer Dixons, digital camera sales out
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3.3 From integration to inclusion

‘Inclusive education’, then, goes beyond ‘integration’ – a term which, until the late 1990s, was generally used to describe the process of repositioning a child or groups of children in mainstream schools. ‘Integration’ was a term used by organisations such as CSIE (originally called the Centre for Studies in Integration in Education) when seeking neighbourhood placements for all students, and implied the need for a student to adapt to the school, rather th
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2 Models of thinking

In Section 1, you were asked to think about your own definitions of inclusive education. In Section 2, we show how personal experience of inclusion and exclusion has been a major driving force in the development of inclusive education, with disabled adults in particular struggling to redefine their experiences of schooling. One major factor in this struggle towards redefinition has been the shift towards a social model of disability.

Rieser and Mason have described a model as ‘no
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Helena Vines Fiestas (Oxfam), Noshua Watson (IDS) and Glory Saavedra (Colombia Solidarity Campaign)
Helena Vines Fiestas (Oxfam), Noshua Watson (IDS) and Glory Saavedra (Colombia Solidarity Campaign) are interviewed on the seminar, ‘The Impact of Investment and Corporate Ownership Models on International Development and Poverty’, held at IDS on the 2 November 2010.

The seminar considered the investment and corporate ownership models and how they impact development and poverty, while taking into account the big challenges we are facing such as food security and climate change.

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Plate Tectonics: Lake Mead, Nevada
Contrary to what most geologists thought less than 100 years ago, we live on a dynamic planet. Earth's surface has changed in countless ways during the 4.6 billion years since it formed, and it continues to change today. This video segment adapted from Discovering Women looks at some of the geologic processes that have shaped the landscape near Lake Mead, Nevada, and suggests that these processes may be causing North America to slowly break apart. Closed captioning included.  Run time 02:13.
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Lecure 3: Taking Account of Misconceptions; Avoiding Rote Learning

Topics covered: Taking account of misconceptions; avoiding rote learning

Instructor: Dr. Sanjoy Mahajan


Author(s): Sanjoy Mahajan

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

Climate conference highlights poor
Over 600 scientists and policymakers gather in Hong Kong to discuss the issue of climate change.
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