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Introduction

This unit considers the growth of human rights and humanitarian law before looking at the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in detail. It will also look at the position of human rights in the UK and the effect of the Human Rights Act 1998.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Rules, rights and justice: an introduction to law (W100)


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Acknowledgements

The following material is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Figur
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The relationship between the EC and the EU

The words ‘European Economic Community’ (EEC), ‘European Community’ (EC) and ‘European Union’ (EU) have already been used in this unit, and many texts and journal and newspaper articles use them interchangeably. It is important that you are clear on their relationship and what they mean. This unit will always refer to the current position as the EU, but what is the relationship between the EC, the EEC and the EU?

As mentioned earlier, the Maastricht Treaty (1992) established
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3.4 How does the EU operate?

The EU operates through institutions created in the treaties. These institutions can have decision-making powers, law-making powers or may act as part of a checking and consultation procedure.

The institutions include:

  1. The European Parliament (represents the people of the EU).

  2. The Council of the European Union (represents the member states of the EU).

  3. The European Commission (represents the interests of the EU).
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6.4 The mischief rule

This third rule gives a judge more discretion than either the literal or the golden rule. This rule requires the court to look to what the law was before the statute was passed in order to discover what gap or mischief the statute was intended to cover. The court is then required to interpret the statute in such a way to ensure that the gap is covered. The rule is contained in Heydon's Case (1584), where it was said that for the true interpretation of a statute, four things have to be
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3.4.1 Try some yourself

1 For each of the following calculations make suitable rough estimates before doing the calculation on your calculator and check the result.

  • (a) 22.12 ÷ 4.12

  • (b) 0.897 ×
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3.4 Did I make a rough estimate to act as a check?

When using a calculator many people have ‘blind faith’ in its capacity to provide the correct result.

Calculators invariably provide the co
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1.4.2: Price indices

Cast your mind back to why proportions and percentages were introduced in Section 2. It was because using actual price changes is unsatisfactory in comparing how the prices of different items have altered over time when their basic prices are very different. For example, if the price of a new motor car has gone up by £100 and the price of a new bicycle has gone
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1.3.5 Generalising the formula for the mean household size

This method of calculating the mean may be summarised as follows.

The frequency of a household size is the number of responses corresponding to that size. The sum of the frequencies is the total number of households.

One use of symbols in mathematics is in provi
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1.3.2 The mean

The mean, or the arithmetic mean as it is sometimes called, is found by adding together all the numbers in the batch and then dividing by the batch size. Thus, for the batch of heights,


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1.3.1: The mean and the median

This subsection looks at two ways of finding an ‘average’. The first produces the mean, which is what was originally meant by ‘average’, and what most people think of when they talk about an average. The second gives the median, which might more accurately be described as a ‘typical’ or middle value. They will be illustrated using the following batch of heights.

The heights in metres (measured to the nearest centimetre) of a group of seven people are as follows
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6.5.1 Another ‘making a lawn’ solution

Example 18 Making a lawn

Suppose you have some friends who are planning to put a new lawn in their garden. The lawn is to be 12 m by 14 m and they have a choice of either laying turf or sowing grass seed. You have been asked to help them decide between the two.

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2.5.1 Try some yourself

1 How would you add the following words to the list:

 decimal, fraction, positive, negative.

For each one, give the mathematical meaning and an example of its use.

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2.3 Link words

A lot of people use the equals sign wrongly in places where another word or phrase might actually make the meaning clearer. Sometimes a link word or phrase is useful at the beginning of a mathematical sentence: examples include ‘So’, ‘This implies’ or ‘It follows that’ or ‘Hence’.

Example 3

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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • lay out and, where appropriate, label simple mathematical arguments;

  • understand the precise mathematical meaning of certain common English words;

  • understand and use common mathematical symbols;

  • write clear, unambiguous mathematical solutions using appropriate notation;

  • identify and modify some sources of ambiguity or inappropriate use of notation in a mathematical solution;
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content is taken from an activity written by Marion Hall for students taking courses in Health and Social Care, in particular those studying K101 An Introduction to Health and Social Care. The original activity is one of a set of skills activities made available to all HSC students via the HSC Resource Bank.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see
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6 Dividing on paper

If the numbers you want to divide are too large for you to do the calculation in your head, you can use a calculator. Alternatively, you can do the calculation on paper. In the example below, click on each step in turn to see how to divide 126 by 6.

Active content not displayed. This content requires JavaScript to be enabled, and a
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1.1.4 Activity 1.2

Boxplots of family sizes

The table below contains data on the sizes (numbers of children) of the completed families of two samples of mothers in Ontario. One sample of mothers had had fewer years of education than the other sample (si
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5: Summary

In this unit, you have been introduced to a number of ways of representing data graphically and of summarizing data numerically. We began by looking at some data sets and considering informally the kinds of questions they might be used to answer.

An important first stage in any assessment of a collection of data, preceding any numerical analysis, is to represent the data, if possible, in some informative diagrammatic way. Useful graphical representations that you have met in this unit i
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