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2.3 Older lives and elder care homes: care and control

The de facto constitution of workhouses as ‘older’ spaces can be viewed as representing a precursor to public elder care homes as these developed later in the twentieth century. Indeed, the numbers of older people in such care homes today remains consistent with the 5 per cent of older people inhabiting workhouses at the end of the nineteenth century (Midwinter, 1997). Constituted as sites of care rather than control, these homes have nonetheless been subject to considerable critical
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2.2 Older lives and the shadows of the workhouse: mediating ‘welfare’ through the thre

For much of the nineteenth century, the experience of public welfare by older working-class people was mediated through the local administrations of the 1834 New Poor Law Act (a separate Act was introduced in Scotland in 1845) and the deterrent of the workhouse that provided its spine. The Act enshrined a particular set of social relations underpinned by the dominant liberal political ideology of laissez-faire. Predicated on a philosophy of non-state intervention, this ideology advocat
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2.1 Introduction

In this section, we explore how experiences of being an older person in the nineteenth century were constituted through the operation of the 1834 New Poor Law Act and the processes of industrial change that ran parallel to it. We examine the way this constructed the lives of older people as ‘other’ to the emergent ‘normal’ (adult, relatively youthful, male paid worker) and trace its legacy to reveal points of continuity and change.

1 The experience of‘old age’

Extract 1 Mrs Pullen

I don't think I mind being old, I try very hard to accept that I am old, but what makes it harder is that people think that old age is a write-off … The reason it's brought home to you with such a jolt is because you give up work. You have to give up work – suddenly
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Next steps

After completing this unit you may wish to study another OpenLearn Study Unit or find out more about this topic. Here are some suggestions:

If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explo
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7 Conclusion

We have explored nations, national self-determination and secession as living political ideas. Perhaps the key points to emerge from the discussion are that:

  • the nation-state is the basic political community in the contemporary world, despite regional and global challenges;

  • subjective approaches to defining nations, prioritising awareness of belonging to a national group, have advantages over efforts to construct objective definitions
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6.7 What about alternatives to secession?

We have seen that in principle there are alternatives: cultural autonomy or a form of federalism. There are alternative ways to recognise 'national' identity apart from secession.

One conclusion to arise from this discussion of secession is that we are not cast adrift without any general principles or guidelines. We have also seen how the complexities of the real political world impinge upon poli
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3.2 Behavioural approaches

Behavioural therapies are based on principles of classical conditioning and operant conditioning (the latter being more properly referred to as behaviour modification therapy). Operant conditioning is about the presentation of a reinforcement being dependent (contingent) on the appearance of a given behaviour. Based on this idea, Skinner (1953) suggested that sometimes ‘abnormal’ behaviour is the result of bad contingency management, where inappropriate behaviours have
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Práctica 11 A nivel de frase: Reconocimiento de las curvas de entonación
In this unit materials you will learn about the history of Spain and the important place of Arab and Jewish cultures in Spanish history. You will study a number of language points to help you talk about history and will write descriptive texts using a variety of stylistic devices.
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Lighting Up: Analysis Of Yeast RAS Genes Using A Chemiluminescent Southern Blot Procedure
Genomic and plasmid-encoded RAS2 genes from Baker's and brewing yeast strains will be analyzed using a shortened Southern blot procedure employing chemiluminescence. Unique parts of this procedure are the gravity-driven "upside down" transfer and a rotisserie-like hybridization oven, which greatly facilitate shortening the transfer time to 45 minutes and the hybridization step to 60 minutes. Chemiluminescence obviates problems associated with radioisotopes without sacrificing sensitivity: the pl
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Episode 143: Radiation for the rest of us: The alpha, beta and gamma of atomic interaction

Physicist Dr Roger Rassool discusses the basic physics behind the radioactivity produced -- and sometimes leaked -- in the production of nuclear power. With science host Dr Shane Huntington.