Principles for designing Web searching instruction
Web searching is a timely topic which importance is recognized by researchers, educators and instructional designers. This paper aims to guide these practitioners in developing instructional materials for learning to search the Web. It does so by articulating ten design principles that attend to the content and presentation of Web searching instruction. These principles convey a mixture of insights gleaned from instructional theory, empirical research, and many hours of classroom experience. Tog
Minimalist instruction for learning to search the World Wide Web.
This study examined the efficacy of minimalist instruction to develop self-regulatory skills involved in Web searching. Two versions of minimalist self-regulatory skill instruction were compared to a control group that was merely taught procedural skills to operate the search engine. Acquired skills were tested on Web search tasks and search tasks in an online library catalogue. Self-regulatory skill instruction was found to increase practice time by 25%. However, it did not enhance search perfo
Exploring novice users' training needs in searching information on the World Wide Web.
Searching for information on the WWW involves locating a website and locating information on that site. A recent study implied that novice users' training needs exclusively relate to locating websites. The present case study tried to reveal the knowledge and skills that constitute these training needs. Fourteen pre-university students, classified as novice (n = 7) or experienced WWW-user (n = 7) performed three web search tasks. Their actions and verbalisations were recorded. Between-group compa
Self-directed learning in simulation-based discovery environments
SIMQUEST1 is an authoring system for designing and creating simulation-based learn-ing environments. The special character of SIMQUEST learning environments is that they include cognitive support for learners which means that they provide learners with support in the discovery process. In SIMQUEST learning environments we try to find the balance between direct guidance of the learning process and sufficient free-dom for learners to regulate the learning process themselves. In this article we de-
The effects of graphical overviews on exploratory behaviour and knowledge acquisition in hypertext e
One of the main and recognized problems of learning with hypertexts is that learners are easily distracted and end up lost in hyperspace. As a result, they do not acquire complete and adequate knowledge. In this study, we enhanced a hypertext environment with a graphical overview that represented the basic structure of the domain and we designed the layout in such a way that learners were unobtrusively encouraged to follow a sequence of exploration that followed the domain structure. This so
Can kindergarten children be successfully involved in probabilistic tasks?
This paper describes a classroom teaching experiment, concerning the concept of probability, with children aged 5 in a kindergarten school. The teaching experiment was based on constructivist and interactionist theories about the learning of school mathematics and lasted one month. The collection of the information was based on the tape-recorded interviews with the children (each child was interviewed prior to the research program, at the end of the program and one month later) and the videotape
Differences between novice and experienced users in searching information on the World Wide Web
Lazonder, Biemans, and Wopereis observed 25 fourth grade students divided into novice and expert classes on the basis of self reported World Wide Web experience and a proficiency test. No significant differences were found among the subjects in domain expertise (based on standard test performance), gender or ethnic background. Each subject preformed three 13 minute search and browse assignments where site location and information location were treated separately. Time and success were recorded,
The ZAP Project: Designing interactive computer tools for learning psychology
In the ZAP project, a set of interactive computer programs called 'ZAPs' was developed. The programs were designed in such a way that first-year students experience psychological phenomena in a vivid and self-explanatory way. Students can either take the role of participant in a psychological experiment, they can experience phenomena themselves, or they can take the role of researcher and learn by discovery. ZAPs provide added value to existing learning materials about psychological topics and c
The relation between prior knowledge and students' collaborative discovery learning processes
In this study we investigate how prior knowledge influences knowledge development during collaborative discovery learning. Fifteen dyads of students (pre-university education, 15-16 years old) worked on a discovery learning task in the physics field of kinematics. The (face-to-face) communication between students was recorded and the interaction with the environment was logged. Based on students' individual judgments of the truth-value and testability of a series of domain-specific propositions,
Effects of pictures, age and experience on learning to use a computer program
This study examines the effects of pictures of screen captures and input devices on documentation for older novices. There was no main effect of pictures, but there were statistically significant interactions between the type of picture and the factors of age and computer experience. As predicted, the most optimized designsthe ones presenting screen capturesmoderated the negative effects of age. We argue that screen captures help reduce two problems in the cognitive area that are especially
Computer simulations - Technological advances in inquiry learning
Computer simulations enhance inquiry-based learning - in which students actively discover information - by allowing scientific discovery within a realistic setting.
Le rôle de lingénierie ontologique dans le domaine des EIAH
Dans cet entretien, Riichiro Mizoguchi nous révèle ses pensées les plus profondes sur le rôle que joue lIngénierie Ontologique (IO) dans le domaine des EIAH. Il insiste sur la nature conceptuelle dune ontologie, faite pour pouvoir partager des connaissances entre humains et ordinateurs, et entre ordinateurs. Conceptualisation, partage et réutilisation sont donc les concepts-clés dune ontologie. Dans le domaine des EIAH, le rôle de lIO nest pas de modéliser les connaissances po
Logiciels de construction de cartes de connaissances: Des outils pour apprendre
This article examines the possible uses of concept mapping software in a university or continuing education context. Concept mapping applications allow the student to graphically represent compiled information as a network of nodes and vectors. The article looks at several applications that may be used to make different kinds of maps, but mainly reviews teaching strategies that incorporate these tools as well as providing a number of planning pointers. It also summarizes the main advantages and
Apport de lingénierie ontologique aux environnements de formation à distance
Cet article explore le potentiel de lontologie et de lingénierie ontologique pour augmenter lintelligence dans les environnements de formation à distance, ainsi que dans la conception de ces environnements. Il contient une introduction à lontologie avec ses origines dans la philosophie occidentale, une discussion des relations entre lintelligence artificielle et lingénierie ontologique, suivie dune description des méthodologies et des outils dingénierie ontologique. Plusieu
Ontology Development at the Conceptual Level for Theory-Aware ITS Authoring Systems
This paper presents ontology engineering at the conceptual level, based on case analysis where an author (a human or software agent), assisted by an ITS authoring system, needs to select an instructional strategy (method) in order to develop a learning scenario or environment. A detailed description of the development process at the conceptual level is provided, followed by the presentation of its results. Outstanding issues raised therein will be shared for further reflection.
Participating Virtually to a Scientific Conference: A Collaborative E-Learning Scenario for Authenti
This paper presents a collaborative e-learning scenario inspired by socio-constructivist and situated learning theories which encourage authentic learning. Developed for a graduate distance education course, this scenario requires students to participate virtually in an asynchronous scientific conference. This paper presents the learning scenario, the technological environment developed to implement this scenario, as well as the results of a preliminary investigation which examines students p
Standard-compliant Scenario Building with Theoretical Justification in a Theory-aware Authoring Tool
Nowadays standard technologies play important roles in enhancing sharability, reusability and interoperability of learning contents. However, there is a lack of pedagogical justification of the contents implemented with the standards. This paper discusses the standard-compliance of our ontology-based modeling framework and how the framework gives theoretical justification to standard-compliant learning/instructional scenarios in a theory-aware authoring tool.,Poster in 13th International Confere
Herzberg : une simulation multimédia à interactivité variable
Herzberg est un environnement de simulation multimédia permettant de visualiser et dexplorer la vibration et la rotation des molécules. Il permet de créer des documents formés dun ensemble de pages affichant une ou deux molécules dans des configurations prédéfinies; un texte et une voix dexplication peuvent être associés à chaque page. Il est possible de fixer pour chaque document le niveau dinteractivité. On peut également, sans effectuer de programmation, ajouter de nouvell
Credibility of a simulation-based virtual laboratory: An exploratory study of learner judgments of v
Several studies have examined realism and instructional effectiveness of physical simulations. However, very few have touched on the question of their credibility or verisimilitude, from the users point of view. This article presents an empirical exploratory study which investigated the perceptions of potential users of a simulation-based virtual physics laboratory (the VPLab). In the VPLab, students conduct virtual physics experiments designed to promote both acquisition of general experiment
Inside Theory-Aware and Standards-Compliant Authoring System
In their paper , Bourdeau and Mizoguchi foresaw a framework for ontology-based intelligent systems. Although it took longer years than their expectation, the ontology they have been developing is now released for evaluation with the help of the second author. Ontology building is a labor-intensive process and it is rarely perfect. Our enterprise is not an exception. The current ontology is still very preliminary because it has been completely reconstructed from the existing one with a few ne