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4.1.3 The receiver

The receiver receives data from the network and manipulates it into a message to send to User 2. Sometimes the receiver may also store or retrieve data.

In the mobile phone communication system, the data received from the network must be manipulated back into sound before being sent to the user. In addition, some mobile phones can store and retrieve data about the user's contacts, so that when a call is received they can translate the phone number of the caller into a name which is then
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3.2 Looking into the 'means of conveying a message'

The diagram in Figure 6 shows that, for communication to take place, there needs to be some means of conveying the message between the sender and the recipient. I am now going to look at the essential components of ‘means of conveying a message’. In other words, I shall treat ‘m
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2.3 Models of an ICT system

To help me to introduce you to important ideas about ICT systems, I'm going to take a three-stage approach. ICTs involve conveying, manipulating and storing data. This is going to be the basis of my approach.

Firstly, in the next few sections, we'll look at ICT systems where the primary function is to convey data. We can think of these systems as communication systems and I'll use a mobile phone system as an example.

In sections 8–14, I'll focus on ICT systems wher
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2.2.2 Drawing the boundary

Deciding where to place the system boundary is an important consideration in that we have to think about what to include and exclude. This isn't always an easy decision to make and it often depends on the perspective of the person viewing the system.

The system maps in Figures 1
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2.2.1 Subsystems

An important aspect of systems is that each component can be considered as a subsystem. In the health centre appointments system, the ‘computerised booking system’ may be a complex system in its own right involving a number of computers networked together. Figure 2 shows
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Networked living: exploring information and communication technologies (T175) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

Many governments across the world are moving towards the use of infor
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1.3.3 Choosing colours with the right connotations

When you use a colour, you should think about what it is likely to mean to the people who look at it, as colours can have different connotations. Colours can even make people feel different. For example, pink has been shown to have a calming effect on emotionally disturbed people.

These connotations are partly cultural, so you may find they do not ring true for you if you are a member of a non-western culture, such as Chinese or Indian. For example, in western culture, red is often used
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6.2.2 Threats and vulnerabilities

A hacker who threatens your organisation's information assets is taking advantage of vulnerabilities in the media and systems which handle them. Vulnerabilities and threats clearly go hand-in-hand: each threat is directed at a vulnerability.

The relationship between information assets, threats, vulnerabilities and existing defences is illustrated in Author(s): The Open University

6.1 Introduction

Section 5 discussed the ISMS planning and documentation process in general and also went into the details of Stages 1, 2 and 8 of the ISMS documentation task. In this section, we shall discuss Stage 3 of the ISMS documentation task and see how to define a systematic approach to risk assessment. We shall also look at the asset identification task. The remaining two tasks, risk assessment and risk treatment, are outside the scope of this unit.


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3.2.1 Obtaining patches and updates

Start Internet Explorer.

Choose Tools > Windows update from the drop-down menu at the top of the browser screen.

(Note: if you are using a computer at work that is controlled by an IT group this option may be missing, as it can be disabled in a corporate environment.)

If you are unable to find the ‘update’ option, you could try the Microsoft update site.

Follow the on-screen option to scan your computer and see the number of updates that are available to you.


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3.2 What do we mean by patches?

Microsoft Windows is an example of an operating system (OS). These operating systems contain millions of lines of code, and inevitably there will be some errors in that code. Some malware writers set out to find these errors, or holes, in the code and exploit them to their own benefit. Whenever holes are found (by IT security people or groups, malware writers or the software developer) the operating system manufacturer will issue a fix for the particular problem. These fixes are referred to a
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1.1 The growth of malware

The figures below show how the problem of malware has increased over the last 30 years.

1974First self-replicating code (Xerox)
1982First virus on the Apple platform
1984First conference papers on viruses presented
1986First recorded virus infection on the PC
19
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3.3 Focused search sites

An alternative to using general purpose search engines is to make use of focused search engines that only index known genealogical sites. For example, the Genealogical Society of the UK and Ireland (GenUKI) provides a search engine.

Activity 24

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3.1 Searching for your ancestors

In this section we consider searching for information about your ancestors. We cannot hope to cover all the techniques and information required to research genealogy, family history and local history; there is only time in this unit to scratch the surface. Some of the activities here are open-ended; please do not spend too long on them. If the subject interests you, you can revisit it after the course finishes, making use of the genealogical resources in the Appendix.


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7.5 Active and passive tags

Activity 30: exploratory

Read the extracts below. Using the information they contain, make notes about the main differences between active and passive RFID tags. You will get more out of this exercise if you make a serious attempt to d
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6.9 The personalised home

In the extract from The Road Ahead, quoted at the beginning of this section, Gates makes reference to ‘an electronic pin to clip to your clothes’. This pin appears to have the ability to communicate to the network so that its wearer can be identified and located. The information can then be used to provide a personal environment for the wearer. The next section introduces you to a technology that can provide the kind of pin that Gates refers to.


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4.9 Bluetooth

The driving force for the development of the Bluetooth standard was to eliminate the need for connecting wires between local ICT devices such as keyboards, monitors, printers, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), cell phones and headsets. This was already possible using infrared technology, but the requirement for line-of-sight positioning between the communicating interfaces limits infrared's usefulness. Because Bluetooth uses radio waves, Bluetooth devices can communicate with each other wit
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3.4 Protocols and standards

You have already met the idea of protocols in Section 1 – rules to govern how information is sent, transmitted and received. Protocols can be explained using an analogy with the way people talk to each other. When we talk we don't simply string words together in a random fashion: we have a set of rules (grammar) that determines the order of words and the way sentences are constructed. Understand didn't have other us difficult if it would be quite rules each these for to we. We hope t
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3.3 Wired network configurations

Network nodes can be connected together in different arrangements known as topologies. We are going to describe four common topologies that you may come across.

Figure 10

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3.1 Introduction

This section starts by broadly classifying different types of network, first by the nature of the communication links used to connect devices and then by a network's geographical spread. It then examines in more detail a network which uses a cabled communication link.

A networked device is often referred to as a node so we shall use this term in the sections that follow. A node is any device (for example, computer, printer, server) connected to a network, either as an end point (
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