The world is small ().

George Z. Chen
MSc, PhD, DIC, CChem, FRSC, FRSA, FIMMM

Professor of Electrochemical Technologies (),

Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, UK.

Teaching: Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering.

Research: Energy and Sustainability Research Division.

Click below to obtain a copy of the latest ETG Open Access publication.

Cryo-solvatochromism in ionic liquids


Welcome to GZC's Personal Webpage at The University of Nottingham.

 

Click here to see my Official Webpage, or my records in Google Scholar My Citations, Linkedin, ResearchGate, and Academia.edu.

Researcher ID: A-4577-2009.  ORCiD (Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier): http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5589-5767.

h-index: 49 (G-Scholar) / 43 (Web of Science).  i10-index: 127 (GS)/ 117 (WoS). w-index: 13 (GS) /12 (WoS).  

 


Research

Teaching

Collaboration

Conference

Publication

Personal


 

Latest News

 

(Click here to see our latest publications)

 


(16 Oct 2014)

 


I have long wished to visit Australia, and was lucky for having been invited by J. Harper, L. Aldous and C. Zhao to present our work on composite films of polymer and ionic liquids at the APCIL-ASIL 2014 Conference in Sydney. It was preceded by my visit to Fudan University as a Senior Visiting Scholar of H. He, and then followed by joining the 2014 ECS and SMEQ Joint International Meeting in Cancun.  A long trip over three weeks has been filled up with interesting electrochemical science in both molten salts and ionic liquids, together with wonderful foods but also the inescapable jet lag……

 

(Invited Seminar) Chen GZ, Electrochemical capture and utilisation of carbon dioxide, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai, 25 Sept 2014.

(Keynote) Yu LP, Taylor A, Chen GZ, Ionic liquid-polymer composite films for energy applications, 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Ionic Liquids and Green Processes / 6th Australasian Symposium on Ionic Liquids (APCIL-4/ASIL-6 2014), 2014, Sydney, Australia, 28 Sept - 01 Oct 2014 

(Keynote) Hu D, Stevenson A, Chen GZ, An overview of the REFINE project --- The sustainable reduction of spent fuel vital in a closed loop nuclear energy cycle, 2014 ECS and SMEQ Joint International Meeting, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 19, Cancun, Mexico, 5-10 Oct 2014.

Stevenson A, Hu D, Chen GZ, Molten salt assisted electrochemical separation of spent fuel surrogates by partial direct reduction and selective anodic dissolution, The 2014 ECS and SMEQ Joint International Meeting, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 19, Cancun, Mexico, 5-10 October 2014.


 

(26 Sept 2014)

 

 

A 10-fold increase of the graphite anode surface area can decrease the electrolysis voltage by about 1.0 V in electrolysis of solid metal oxides in molten calcium chloride. This is the finding in Hualing’s past work which together with other experimental and analytical results will be published by J. Solid State Electrochem., as a dedication to Professor Stephen Fletcher on the occasion of his 65th birthday.   

 

In addition, Xianbo has led a new study of the mechanism of electro-reduction of germanium dioxide into germanium in mixed molten calcium and sodium chloride. The work has been accepted for publication in Electrochim. Acta.

 

Chen HL, Jin XB*, Yu LP, Chen GZ*, Influences of graphite anode area on electrolysis of solid metal oxides in molten salts, J. Solid State Electrochem., (2014, accepted)
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10008-014-2645-2)

 

Rong LB, He R, Wang ZY, Peng JJ, Jin XB,* Chen GZ, Investigation of electrochemical reduction of GeO2 for the preparation of Ge in molten CaCl2-NaCl, Electrochim. Acta, (2014, accepted)

 


 

(22 Aug 2014)

 

 

We have proposed the concept of “cryo-solvatochromism” and demonstrated it in a hydroxyl ionic liquid with chloro-nickel complexes in a freezer. A composite film of PVDF and the cryo-solvatochromic ionic liquid has also been made, confirming applicability in materials. Linpo’s careful design and execution of the experiments were of high quality and target-efficient. The work which is going to be published in RSC Advances promises very many practical prospects, such as a quality/temperature indicator on the package of foods in your home freezer.

 

(Open access) Yu L, Chen GZ*, Cryo-solvatochromism in Ionic Liquids, RSC Adv. (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4RA08116A

 


 

(09 Aug 2014)

 

  Thanks to the invitation from Prof. Changming Li, Happiness and Richard put together their literature knowledge and own research findings into the first review article on electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in molten salts, and the article has been published by RSC Advances (online). 

 

(Open access, invited review) Ijije HV, Lawrence RC, Chen GZ*, Carbon electrodeposition in molten salts: Electrode reactions and applications, RAC Adv. (2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4ra04629c

 


 

(23 July 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

Opening a new field of in our research, Grace (Li Guan) researched on Fenton recovery of carbon nanotubes from their conducting polymer composites, and successfully defended her PhD thesis with both the hypothesis and experimental demonstration. 

 

Guan L, Intact recovery of carbon nanotubes from their conducting polymer composites via selective Fenton-oxidation, PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, PhD recommendation in July 2014.

 


 

(12 July 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tallinn is a very nice city to host the “EUCHEM 2014 Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids XXV” conference. Happiness and myself have presented our work on indirect electro-reduction CO2 in molten carbonate salts at this conference, thanks to the invitation of the organiser, Prof. Mihkel Koel. It was also a pleasure to have met again with a few “old” and “new” friends during the conference.

 

Chen GZ (Invited) Electrochemical production of energy storage carbon from carbon dioxide in molten salts
Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids XXV, EUCHEM2014, Tallinn, Estonia, 6-11 July 2014.

 

Ijije HV, Lawrence RC, Chen GZ* (poster),  Indirect electrochemical reduction of CO2 to carbon nano powders in molten alkali carbonates: Basics and Applications, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids XXV, EUCHEM2014, Tallinn, Estonia, 6-11 July 2014.

http://www.euchem2014.ttu.ee/

 


 

(11 May 2014)

 

 

 

 

“Energy from sunlight in summer can be stored in carbon via facile electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in molten salts, and then discharged in winter aided by oxygen as heat or electricity via a fuel cell or battery with the same molten salts as the electrolyte.”

 

This hypothesis on seasonal energy storage is shown to be promising in our recent research and the work will be published at Faraday Discussion 172: Carbon in Electrochemistry and seriously reviewed by the participants in late July this year at Sheffield.

 

(Open access, invited review) Ijije HV, Lawrence RC, Siambun NJ, Jeong SM, Jewell DA, Hu D, Chen GZ*, Electro-deposition and re-oxidation of carbon in carbonate containing molten salts, Faraday Discuss., (2014, online) (http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4FD00046C)

 


 

(21 Mar 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

Many congratulations to

Junghoon and Gwangjun on their receiving examiners’ recommendation for the PhD degree, and

Happiness on her winning one of the University Endowed Postgraduate Prizes 2013/2014.

  

Kim G, A visible-light assisted dual purpose photoelectrochemical cell for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants in wastewater, PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, PhD recommendation in March 2014.

 

Chae GH, Supercapacitors with neutral aqueous electrolytes, PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, PhD recommendation in March 2014.

 

Ijije HV, University Endowed Postgraduate Prize Winner 2013/2014.

(Andrew Hendry Postgraduate Scholarship - Founded in 1968 from subscriptions raised in memory of the late Mr Andrew Hendry, Bursar of the University of Nottingham, 1948-66.)


 

(16 Feb 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

Our second paper on CO2 capture and conversion (CCC) or utilisation (CCU) in molten salts has been accepted for publication by Carbon, thanks to the great effort of Happiness.   In this paper, properties of the products from electrolysis are correlated with the process variables.  Of the various interesting properties of the electrolytic carbon, the onset temperature for oxidation (combustion) in air is noticeably lower than those of conventional carbon powders, implying potential uses of the electrolytic carbon as solid fuels/propellants. 

 

Ijije HV, Sun C-G, Chen GZ*, Indirect electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon nanopowders in molten alkali carbonates: process variables and product properties, Carbon (2014, accepted) (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.02.052)

 

 


 

(28 Jan 2014)

 

 

 

Thanks to the hard and effective work of Gwangjun and Ebenezer, our first independent paper on photocatalysis is accepted for publication by the prestigious Chemical Engineering Journal. The work describes a novel photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) for simultaneous removal of both organic pollutants and heavy metals from wastewaters. The unique advantage is that the PEC can utilise sunlight to change the anode reaction from electro-oxidation of water (or chloride ion) to photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of the organic pollutant whilst maintaining metal deposition on the cathode. Consequently, as demonstrated in this paper, the cell voltage required to operate this PEC can be lower by over 70 %  than that required for conventional electrodeposition of Cu with an inert anode.

 

Kim G, Ebenezer ET, Chen GZ*, A sunlight assisted dual purpose photoelectrochemical cell for low voltage removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants in wastewater, Chem. Eng. J. (2014, accepted) (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.01.090)

 


 

(12 Jan 2014)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The ETG started in the New Year with Ebenezer passing his PhD viva. His thesis represents an important progress in the ETG’s independent effort to develop research activities in the area of electro-photocatalysis for wastewater treatment.

 

Ebenezer Igunnu, Removal of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Produced Water via a One-Pot Photoelectrochemical System, PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, Sept. 2013.

 


 

(12 Dec 2013)

 

 

 

 

The supercapattery principle, i.e. combination of an electrode for Faradaic reaction and another for double layer dis-/charging in the same electrochemical cell, can be applied to electrolysis to significantly reduce the cell voltage. This is well demonstrated in the experiments carried out by Chuang. The work is now published online as a communication in the high profile journal, Energy & Environmental Science. 

 

Peng C*, Hu D, Chen GZ*, Achieving low voltage half electrolysis with a supercapacitor electrode,
Energy & Environ. Sci.
, (2013) (http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C3EE43817A)

 

 


 

(28 Oct 2013)

 

 

 

 

 

Congratulations to Amy Chen who has won the Gold CREST Award from the British Science Association. The award was for Amy’s “excellent report” entitled “An Investigation of Molten Salt Electrolysis to Capture and Convert  Carbon Dioxide into Carbon for use in Supercapacitors”. Amy has carried out the research in the ETG during her summer work placement. 

 


(07 Feb 2013)

 

 

 

The semi-circle on the complex plane plot of electrochemical impedance spectrometry (or ac impedance) is a well-known phenomenon caused by charge transfer crossing an interface. It is commonly related with electron transfer between electrode and a redox species in the electrolyte. However, for a thin layer coating without any redox activity, such as the activated carbon coating on a supercapacitor electrode, occurrence of the semi-circle is more likely due to ion transfer between the coating and the electrolyte, although it is not unlikely to be linked with electron transfer between the current collector substrate and the coating. Junghoon has carried out some basic experiments on porous carbon coatings with the results demonstrating ion transfer to be responsible for the semi-circle. Thanks to Prof. Yulong Ding’s invitation, the work is to be published by Particuology, which is an Elsevier journal jointly sponsored by the Chinese Society of Particuology and the Institute of Process Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

 

Chae JH, Chen GZ*, Influences of ions and temperature on performance of carbon nano-particulates in supercapacitors with neutral aqueous electrolytes,
Particuology (2013, accepted)

 

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Click here for my past activities.


Research

Theme: Electrochemical technologies and liquid salts innovations for materials, energy and environment

 

Laboratory in Nottingham (Click the small pictures to see the larger photo taken in 2005).

The area of my research may be best described as "Materials Electrochemistry" and “Electrochemical Technologies”, which require expertise in electrochemistry, molten salts and ionic liquid chemistry, metallurgy, corrosion control at elevated temperatures, optical and electron microscopy, physical and chemical analysis, metal and metal oxide powder processing, polymer processing and etc.

Since obtaining my MSc degree in 1985, I have researched in a number of sub-areas of materials chemistry/electrochemistry, including

---- CO2 capture and conversion (CCC), reclamation (CCR) or utilisation (CCU) in liquid salts via electrochemical means
---- thermochromic and cryochromic composites of polymer and ionic liquid,
---- photo-electro-catalysis on carbon nanotubes supported semi-conductor materials,
---- supercapacitors, supercapatteries, batteries and fuel cells,
---- electrochemical or chemical preparation and applications of composites of carbon nanotube-conducting polymers,
---- electrolytic extraction of metals and alloys from solid metal oxides (compounds) in liquid salts (molten salts and ionic liquids),
---- electrochemistry at three-phase (or multiphase) interlines (3PI)
---- carbon nanotubes production in molten salts,
---- cathodic refining/recycling of metals (Ti and Cu and their alloys) in molten salts,
---- supramolecules and their electrochemical applications,
---- intramolecular interactions within host-guest systems, 
---- charge transfer mechanism in conducting polymers,
---- manganese dioxides (and other transition metal oxides) in primary batteries and supercapacitors.

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 Carbon Capture and Conversion (CCC): Seasonal Energy Storage Assisted by Liquid Salts

CO2 is not a waste. It is actually a valuable carbon source in view of fossil resources becoming scarcer in the near future. Nature does not store this gas as evidenced by its very low level in the atmosphere. Instead, nature captures CO2 and reclaims the carbon via photosynthesis to produce foods, fuels and materials. In principle, and in practice to some extent, this carbon capture and conversion (CCC) process in plants is replicable at a higher rate and efficiency through process engineering which prefers to keep the captured CO2 in a liquid for convenience of mass transport through pumps and pipes. In addition, sufficient thermal stability of the CO2 loaded fluid is a necessity to allow, e.g., renewable energy driven electrolytic or catalytic conversion of CO2 to more useful chemicals or materials.

In 2006, we received the Braine Mercer Feasibility Award from the Royal Society to explore the feasibility of using solar energy to drive electrochemical capture of CO2 and conversion of it to more useful materials in molten salts, such as various nanostructured carbons. The work has continued with funding from the University of Nottingham, and produced very promising results. Particularly, the process indicates the high potential of using the electrochemical cycle between CO2 and carbon, very much like that between water and hydrogen, for seasonal energy storage (of course daily use is also feasible). This concept is particularly meaningful to countries where sunlight is plentiful in the summer, but winter days are typically short (UK and all countries in the northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth.) There are also many opportunities for use of the nanostructured carbons, such as in batteries and supercapacitors.

Our publications on CCC in molten salts:

1.       (Open Access) Electro-deposition and re-oxidation of carbon in carbonate containing molten salts,
Faraday Discuss., (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4FD00046C

2.       (Open Access) Carbon electrodeposition in molten salts: Electrode reactions and applications,
RAC Adv., 4 (2014)35808-35817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4ra04629c

3.       Indirect electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon nanopowders in molten alkali carbonates: Process variables and product properties,
Carbon, 73 (2014) 163-174.

4.       Utilisation of carbon dioxide for electro-carburisation of mild steel in molten carbonate salts,
J. Electrochem. Soc., 158
(2011) H1117-H1124.

5.       Chloride ion enhanced thermal stability of carbon dioxide captured by monoethanolamine in hydroxyl imidazolium based ionic liquids,
Energy & Environ. Sci., 4 (2011)  2125-2133.

 

 


Ionic Liquids: Opportunities and Challenges for Electrochemistry and Materials

 

 

Thermochromic films of ionic liquids & polymer (Samples: XJ Wei)

Transparent window film at normal temperatures

Normal day with clear windows

Removable film on smart window

Dark blue at high  temperatures

Hot day with coloured windows

In my understanding, liquid salts refer to “liquids of ions or ionic matters” disregarding temperatures, and hence include the traditional high temperature molten salts and the relatively new room temperature ionic liquids. By convention, molten is a state resulting from heating, and liquid is a condensed fluid under ambient conditions. The facts that both are salts in nature and work only in the liquid state have led the academic community to search for a common term for both, but such a term has not yet been universally accepted due to a number of reasons. I prefer liquid salts because both words are well known to the general public.  Our work in ionic liquids has just started, but already made some meaningful progresses in two directions, electrochemistry and functional materials, as shown below.

Modulation of composition and structure in the composites of polymer and ionic liquid can lead to thermochromic behaviour in response to temperature variation. In our recent work, these novel composites changed colour in the temperature range (e.g. 30 ~ 80oC) that is readily achievable under direct or indirect sunlight, and hence termed as solar-thermochromic composites. This finding signifies applications in many areas, but particularly the built environment for improved energy efficiency. For example, these materials may be applied in truly smart windows that can, at high summer temperatures, automatically reduce light transmittance through windows and hence the energy consumption for air conditioning and refrigeration.

The University of Nottingham has selected results from our research on thermochromic window films for exhibition in London’s UBPA Case, Zone E, Shanghai Expo.

Our publications involving ionic liquids:

1.       (Open Access) Cryo-solvatochromism in ionic liquids,
RSC Adv., 4 (2014) 40281 – 40285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4RA08116A

  1. A Comparative Study of Anodic Oxidation of Bromide and Chloride Ions on Platinum Electrodes in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate
    J. Electroanal. Chem., 688 (2013) 371-378.
  2. Chloride ion enhanced thermal stability of carbon dioxide captured by monoethanolamine in hydroxyl imidazolium based ionic liquids,
    Energy & Environ. Sci., 4 (2011)  2125-2133.
  3. Capacitance at the electrode/ionic liquid interface,
    Acta Phys. Chim. Sin., 26 (2010) 1239-1248 (in Chinese).
  4. Solar-thermochromism of pseudocrystalline nanodroplets of ionic liquid–NiII complexes immobilized inside translucent microporous PVDF films,
    Adv. Mater., 21 (2009) 776-780.
  5. Thermo-solvatochromism of chloro-nickel complexes in 1-hydroxyalkyl-3-methyl- imidazolium cation based ionic liquids,
    Green Chem., 10 (2008) 296-305.
  6. Electro-reduction of solid cuprous chloride to copper nanoparticles in an ionic liquid,
    Electrochem. Commun., 9 (2007) 1374-1381.
  7. Unusual anodic behaviour of chloride ion in 1-butyl-3-methylimidizolium hexafluorophosphate,
    Electrochem. Commun.,
    7 (2005) 685-691.

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Supercapacitors and Supercapatteries: From Materials and Understanding to Up-Scalable Prototypes

Nanocomposites of CNTs and redox active materials with ideal bi-mode porosity.

Ideal capacitive performance in bipolarly stacked aqueous cells.

Pseudo-capacitance vs.  the band model for semiconductors.

Small sandwich-type supercapacitor with conducting polymers

Bipolarly stacked aqueous supercapattery of high voltage and high power.

Ambitious supercapattery in “salt caverns” (105~7 L) for MW electricity storage.

 

Our research on carbon nanotube composites with redox active materials, e.g. conducting polymers and transition metal oxides, started with the unprecedented use of anionised CNTs as the dopant in electrochemical synthesis of conducting polymers. This preliminary work led to our first grant of £202k from the EPSRC between 2002 and 2006.  The research has been boosted by the 2007 E.ON Research Initiative Award with a total funding of €1.04m for three years starting from April 2008. This project aims to develop a new supercapattery and power electronic system for large scale and intelligent electricity storage.

 

Following the press release from the University of Nottingham in June 2008, a number of internet media have published articles commenting on the supercapattery concept and its potential.  In particular, the article published by Green Car Congress has attracted many interesting comments, discussions and debates. 

 

 

The University of Nottingham has selected results from our research on supercapacitors for exhibition in London’s UBPA Case, Zone E, Shanghai Expo.

 

Currently, we have achieved the following useful technical data (27 Sept 2014)
  Electrode capacitance: > 25 F/cm2 (single cells),
  Cycle life:      > 15000 cycles in charging-discharging tests (single electrode),

          > 5000 cycles (single cells and stacks)
  Cell voltage/specific energy: > 1.8 V / 30 Wh/kg with aqueous electrolyte membranes (single and stacked cells),

          > 4.5 V / 80 Wh/kg with non-aqueous electrolyte membranes (single cells),

  up to 150 cm2 in geometric coverage of the electrode surface with active materials (single and stacked cells),
  up to 5.0  mm single cell thickness,
  Stacks of 2 to 19 cells connected with bipolar plates,
  up to 25 V of maximum stack voltage,
  > 5 years working life with storage and intermittent tests (stack, still ongoing).

Our main publications in this field are given below.

1.     (Invited review, free access) Understanding supercapacitors based on nano-hybrid materials with interfacial conjugation
Prog. Nat. Sci. – Mater. Int. 23 (2013) 245-255. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2013.04.001)

2.     20 V stack of aqueous supercapacitors with carbon (-), titanium bipolar plates and CNT-polypyrrole composite (+),
AIChE J., 58 (2012) 974-983.

3.     Theoretical specific capacitance based on charge storage mechanisms of conducting polymers: Comment on ‘Vertically oriented arrays of polyaniline nanorods and their super electrochemical properties’,
Chem. Commun., 47 (2011) 4105-4107.

4.     Unequalisation of electrode capacitances for enhanced energy capacity in asymmetrical supercapacitors,
Energy Environ. Sci., 3(10) (2010) 1499 - 1502.

5.     Nanostructured materials for the construction of asymmetrical supercapacitors,
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A - J. Power Energy, 224(A4) (2010) 479-503.

6.     Individual and bipolarly stacked asymmetrical aqueous supercapacitors of CNTs/SnO2 and CNTs/MnO2 nanocomposites,
J. Electrochem. Soc., 156 (2009) A846-A853.

7.     Internally referenced analysis of charge transfer reactions in a new ferrocenyl bithiophenic conducting polymer through cyclic voltammetry,
Chem. Commun., (2008) 6606-6608.

8.     Nanoscale micro-electrochemical cells on carbon nanotubes
Small, 3 (2007) 1513-1517.

9.     Carbon nanotube stabilised emulsions for electrochemical synthesis of porous nanocomposite coatings of poly[3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene]
Chem. Comm., (2006) 4629-4631.

10. Electrochemical fabrication and capacitance of composite films of carbon nanotubes and polyaniline
J. Mater. Chem., 15 (2005) 2297 – 2303.

11. Composites of carbon nanotubes and polypyrrole for electrochemical supercapacitors
Chem. Mater. 14 (2002) 1610-1613.

12. Carbon nanotubes and polypyrrole composites: coating and doping
Adv. Mater., 12 (2000) 522-526.

 

World Changing Research: Click hear to see a short video including our work on supercapatteries at YouTube.

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A Letter to Nature and the invention of the FFC Cambridge Process

 

Our "Letter to Nature" entitled "Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride" was published on 21 September 2000, accompanied by a commentary "A moving oxygen story" written by Prof. H. Flower. The Letter had attracted immediate attention of the press, such as The Financial Times, The Economist, Science News, MRS Bulletin, Chemistry in Britain and etc.  The work described in the Letter summarises my research in the past five years and formed the basis for the development of what is now known as the FFC Cambridge Process (details are described elsewhere: text or scheme). This year (2003) saw a real industrial activity resulting from our work when Timet obtained $12.3 million from the US Government

The relevant work, dealing with titanium and other metals, was also reported at many international conferences, namely

  1. EUCHEM 2000 Conference on Molten Salts, Karrebæksminde, 20-25 August 2000
  2. ITA 16th Annual Conference & Exhibition, New Orleans, 8-11 October 2000
  3. TMS 2001 Annual Meeting & Exhibition, New Orleans, 10-15 February 2001
  4. Intertech's Conference, TiO2 2001, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 16-18 May 2001
  5. MS6 Shanghai, 6th International Conference on Molten Salt Chem. & Tech., Shanghai, 08-13 Oct. 2001,
  6. ICMR 2001 Akita, 4th International Conference on Materials Engineering for Resources, Akita, Oct. 11-13, 2001
  7. EUCAS'01, 5th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity, Tech. Univ. Denmark, Copenhagen, 26-30 Aug. 2001
  8. …….

Representative follow-on works on the FFC Cambridge Process. 

1.       (Open Access) Near-net-shape production of hollow titanium alloy components via electrochemical reduction of metal oxide precursors in molten salts,
Metall. Mater. Trans. B,
44 (2013) 272-282.

2.       A robust alumina membrane reference electrode for high temperature molten salts,
J. Electrochem. Soc., 159  (2012) H740-H746.

3.       Processing nanomaterials in molten salts: Partially electro-metallized nano-TiO2 as support of nano-Pt for enhanced catalytic oxidation of CO and CH3OH,
Chem. Eur. J., 71 (2011)  8562-8567.

4.       Metal-to-oxide molar volume ratio: The overlooked barrier to solid-state electro-reduction and a green bypass through recyclable NH4HCO3,
Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 49 (2010) 3203 –3206.

5.       More affordable electrolytic LaNi5-type hydrogen storage powders
Chem. Commun. (2007) 2515-2517.

6.       A direct electrochemical route from ilmenite to hydrogen storage ferrotitanium alloys
Chem.-Eur. J., 12 (2006) 5075-5081.

7.       Electrochemical metallisation of solid terbium oxide
Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 45 (2006) 2384-2388.

8.       Perovskitization assisted electrochemical reduction of solid TiO2 in molten CaCl2
Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 45 (2006) 428-432.

9.       Electrochemistry at conductor / insulator / electrolyte three-phase interlines: A thin layer model
J. Phys. Chem. B, 109 (2005) 14043-14051.

10.    Electrochemical preparation of silicon and its alloys from solid oxides in molten calcium chloride
Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 43 (2004) 733-736.

11.    Direct electrolytic preparation of chromium powder
Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 35 (2004) 223-233.

Two spin-off companies

Following the invention of the FFC Cambridge Process, the University of Cambridge (where I had worked for more than 7 years) had granted exclusive licences to British Titanium plc (formed in 1998, titanium and alloys) and Metalysis (formerly known as FFC Ltd, formed in 2001 and changed to its current name in 2003, non-titanium metals), both were formed solely to commercialise the FFC Cambridge Process.

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Teaching and Administration (Nottingham)

Module convenor and Lecturer of "Engineering Materials" (H82ENM) to Year 2 undergraduates (Oct. 2003 – Sept. 2014).
Module convenor of Energy Storage (H84ENS) to Year 4 and MSc students (start from Jan. 2013 – Sept. 2014)

Supervisor of Year3 Chemical Engineering Lab (Sept. 2013 – Sept. 2014)
Supervisor of MEng “Research and Design Projects” (H84MEP) (Sept 2012 – Sept. 2014)
Supervisor of MSc “Research and Design Projects” (H84MPR) (Jun 2013 – Sept. 2014)
Supervisor of Year 3 “Design Projects” (H83DPX & J13ENP) (2011-2013)

Supervisor of MEng “Research Projects” (H84MEP) (Sept 2004 – Sept. 2012)
Supervisor of MSc “Research Projects” (H84MPR) (Sept 2004 – Sept. 2012)

Supervisor of Visiting/Postdoctoral/Postgraduate researchers, (since Oct. 2003)
Internal examiner of PhD theses and MSc dissertations (since Jul. 2004).
Lecturer of “Process Engineering Fundamentals” (H81PEF) to first year undergraduates (Oct. 2005-Dec. 2009)

Department Director of MSc Courses / Leader of Department Postgraduate/Taught (PGT) Team (Aug. 2011 – Jul. 2014)
Department Senior Tutor of MSc students (Aug. 2011 – Jul. 2014).
Member of International Campus Group, Faculty of Engineering (Feb 2012-Oct 2013)
University approved panel chair for job interviews (since Oct. 2011 – Sept. 2014)

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Conferences

 

I will be pleased to see you at one or more of the following conferences which I have agreed to help the organisation, or to present our work.

4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Ionic Liquids and Green Processes & the 6th Australasian Symposium on Ionic Liquids (APCIL-4/ASIL-6 2014)
http://apcil-asil.unsw.edu.au/

226th ECS Meeting, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 19, Cancun, Mexico, 5-10 October 2014

4th International Round Table on Titanium Production in Molten Salts, 3-7 Nov, Shanghai, China.
www.titanium-irt.org

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Collaboration

---- Prof. Derek Fray, FREng, FRS (My former supervisor, Oct. 1994 to Jun.2001, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge). Various areas of materials electrochemistry.

---- Prof. Paul D. Beer (My former supervisor, May 1992 to Sept 1994, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford). Supramolecular electrochemistry.

----Prof. Xianbo Jin (Xianbo was promoted to professor in Dec. 2009. College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University). Various areas of materials and liquid salts chemistry and electrochemistry.

---- Prof. Ling Peng (Ling was promoted to Director of Research in 2009, Département de chimie, CNRS, Marseille, France). Supramolecules and dendrimers, and their applications.

---- Prof. Yanqiu Zhu (Yanqiu left Nottingham in Aug 2010 to take the Chair of Functional Materials in the College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter). Novel inorganic nanomaterials and their applications.

---- Prof. Wuzong Zhou (Wuzong was promoted to Chair in Aug. 2010. School of Chemistry, St Andrews University). Nanomaterials characterisations, particularly TEM.

---- Prof. Gianluca Li Puma (Gianluca took a chair position in Loughborough University in Oct. 2010) Composites of TiO2 and carbon nanotubes for photo-electro-catalysis.

---- Prof. Shaowei Zhang (Shaowei has been appointed as a professor in Exeter University since Nov. 2011) Molten salt synthesis and electrolysis.

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Publications

Researcher ID: A-4577-2009 (http://www.researcherid.com/rid/A-4577-2009)

ORCiD (Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier): http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5589-5767.

Summary (updated on 16 October 2014)

  1. 2 higher degree theses,
    17 published patent applications (10 granted),
    22 reviews/overview/book chapters (15 invited), and
    150 original articles in refereed journals.
    > 300 oral/poster presentations at various conference/seminars (some were presented by co-authors),
           including >110 invited/keynote lectures, and 62 articles in proceedings.

2.      Records in ISI Web of Science:
Total number of publications = 165
Total number of citations = 6982 (of which 6182 are without self-citations.)
h-index = 43 (≥ 43 papers have been each cited ≥ 43 times, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-index)
i10-index = 117 (117 papers that have each been cited for at least 10 times.)
w-index = 12 (≥ 12 papers have each received over 120 citations, click here to see the meaning of the w-index)

                  
                           Yearly publications (left) and citations (right).

  1. Records in Google Scholar – My Citations:
    Total Number of citations = 8469 (of which 5090 since 2009)
    .
    h-index = 49 (≥ 49 papers have each been cited ≥ 49 times)
    i10-index = 127 (127 papers that have each been cited for at least 10 times.)
    w-index = 14 (≥ 14 papers have each received over 140 citations)

Higher degree theses

  1. Preparation of Fibrous Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (FEMD) from Acidic Solutions of MnCl2 and Mn(NO3)2
    MSc Thesis, Fujian Teachers University, P. R. China, Dec. 1984
    Research area: Electrochemistry / Physical Chemistry.
    Supervisor: Prof. Zhang QX
  2. Studies of Polymer Modified Electrodes
    PhD Thesis, University of London (Imperial College of Sci., Tech. & Med.), U.K., Mar. 1992
    Research area: Electrochemistry / Physical Chemistry.
    Supervisor: Prof. Albery WJ, FRS

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Representative research published in refereed journals

1.        Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride
Chen GZ, Fray DJ* and Farthing TW
Nature, 407 (2000) 361-364.

2.        Indirect electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon nanopowders in molten alkali carbonates: Process variables and product properties,
Ijije HV, Sun C-G, Chen GZ*
Carbon 73 (2014) 163-174.

3.        Nanoscale micro-electrochemical cells on carbon nanotubes,
Jin XB, Zhou W*, Zhang SW, Chen GZ*,
Small, 3 (2007) 1513-1517.

4.        Carbon nanotubes and polypyrrole composites: coating and doping
Chen GZ*, Shaffer MSP, Coleby D, Dixon G.; Zhou W, Windle AH and Fray DJ
Adv. Mater., 12 (2000) 522-526.

5.        Solar-thermochromism of pseudocrystalline nanodroplets of ionic liquid–NiII complexes immobilized inside translucent microporous PVDF films,
Wei XJ, Yu LP, Jin XB*, Wang DH, Chen GZ*,
Adv. Mater., 21 (2009) 776-780.

6.        Chloride ion enhanced thermal stability of carbon dioxide captured by monoethanolamine in hydroxyl imidazolium based ionic liquids,
Huang Q, Li Y, Jin XB*, Zhao D, Chen GZ*,
Energy & Environ. Sci., 4
(2011) 2125-2133.

7.        Intramolecular electrostatics: Coulomb's law at subnanometers
Jin S, Wang DH, Jin XB, Chen GZ*,
ChemPhysChem, 5 (2004) 1623-1629.

8.        Electrochemical preparation of silicon and its alloys from solid oxides in molten calcium chloride,
Jin XB, Gao P, Wang DH, Hu XH, Chen GZ*,
Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 43 (2004) 733-736. (selected as a "hot paper" by the editors)

9.        Electrochemistry at conductor / insulator / electrolyte three-phase interlines: A thin layer model,
Deng Y, Wang DH*, Xiao W, Jin XB, Hu XH, Chen GZ*,
J. Phys. Chem. B, 109 (2005) 14043-14051.

10.    Nanostructured materials for the construction of asymmetrical supercapacitors,
Chae JH, Ng KC, Chen GZ*,
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A - J. Power Energy, 224(A4) (2010) 479-503.

(Click here for a full list)

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Most cited papers (updated on 15 September 2014 according to the Web of Science)

The ten most cited since 2008 (excluding those with ≥ 100 citations).

Publication References

Citations in

Total citations

2009

10

11

12

13

14

Photo-electro-catalysis enhancement on carbon nanotube/titanium dioxide (CNT/TiO2) composite prepared by a novel polymer wrapping sol-gel method, Appl. Catal. B - Environ., 85 (2008) 17–23.

5

16

18

12

16

6

73

Individual and Bipolarly Stacked Asymmetrical Aqueous Supercapacitors of CNTs/SnO2 and CNTs/MnO2 Nanocomposites, J. Electrochem. Soc. 156 (2009) A846-A853.

0

4

8

6

15

10

43

Switching on fast lithium ion conductivity in garnets: The structure and transport properties of Li3+xNd3Te2-xSbxO12, Chem. Mater., 20 (2008) 2360-2369. 

5

7

10

8

3

5

38

Unequalisation of electrode capacitances for enhanced energy capacity in asymmetrical supercapacitors, Energy Environ. Sci. 3 (2010)1499-1502.

0

0

12

10

7

9

38

Carbon nanotube/titanium dioxide (CNT/TiO2) core-shell nanocomposites with tailored shell thickness, CNT content and photocatalytic/photoelectron-catalytic properties, Appl. Catal. B - Environ., 110 (2011) 50-57

NA

NA

NA

7

15

14

36

Distinct element modelling of cubic particle packing and flow, Powder Technol., 186 (2008) 224-240.

4

8

8

6

4

3

34

The measurement of specific capacitances of conducting polymers using the quartz crystal microbalance, J. Electroanal. Chem., 612 (2008) 140-146

4

3

4

4

6

3

30

Theoretical specific capacitance based on charge storage mechanisms of conducting polymers: Comment on 'Vertically oriented arrays of polyaniline nanorods and their super electrochemical properties', Chem Commun, 47 (2011) 4105-4107.

NA

NA

1

7

10

10

28

Nanocomposites of manganese oxides and carbon nanotubes for aqueous supercapacitor stacks, Electrochim. Acta, 55 (2009) 7447-7453.

0

0

5

6

9

6

26

Metal-to-Oxide Molar Volume Ratio: The Overlooked Barrier to Solid-State Electroreduction and a "Green" Bypass through Recyclable NH4HCO3, Angew Chem Int Ed 49 (2010) 3203-3206

NA

1

6

6

6

4

23


 

18 papers each received over 100 citations (cf. Web of Science)

Publication References

Citations in

Total citations

2009

10

11

12

13

14

Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride, Nature 407 (2000) 361-364.

51

54

57

75

52

23

535

Electrochemical capacitance of a nanoporous composite of carbon nanotubes and polypyrrole, Chem Mater 14 (2002) 1610-1613.

38

36

37

57

36

20

376

Carbon nanotubes and polypyrrole composites: coating and doping, Adv  Mater 12 (2000) 522-526.

37

28

29

34

20

15

331

Electrochemical capacitance of nanocomposite films formed by coating aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes with polypyrrole, Adv Mater 14 (2002) 382-385.

24

18

23

20

17

9

212

Electrochemical molecular recognition: pathways between complexation and signalling, J Chem Soc Dalt (1999) 1897-1909.

10

9

10

15

5

5

212

Mechanisms of electrochemical recognition of cations, anions and neutral guest species by redox-active receptor molecules, Coordin Chem Rev 185-6 (1999) 3-36.

11

8

16

14

8

4

171

A comparative study on electrochemical co-deposition and capacitance of composite films of conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes,  Electrochim Acta 53 (2007) 525-537.

13

26

33

35

36

16

168

Synthesis and characterization of novel acyclic, macrocyclic, and calix[4]arene ruthenium(II) bipyridyl receptor molecules that recognize and sense anions, Inorg Chem 35 (1996) 5868-5879. 

6

10

8

6

10

3

156

Carbon nanotube and conducting polymer composites for supercapacitors, Proc. Nat. Sci.- Mater. Int. 18 (2008) 777-788.

9

26

17

26

47

24

151

Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of charge-transfer in modified electrodes, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 88 (1989) 247-259.

3

7

7

3

4

2

143

Redox deposition of manganese oxide on graphite for supercapacitors, Electrochem. Commun. 6 (2004) 499-504

18

11

17

10

13

5

134

Selective electrochemical recognition of the dihydrogen phosphate anion in the presence of hydrogen sulfate and chloride-ions by new neutral ferrocene anion receptors, J Chem Soc Chem Comm (1993) 1834-1836.

4

4

6

4

2

0

127

Nanoscale microelectrochemical cells on carbon nanotubes, Small, 3 (2007) 1513-1517

5

17

18

26

29

25

121

Direct electrolytic preparation of chromium powder, Metall. Meter. Trans. B 35 (2004) 223-233.  The most cited paper of the journal since 2001. (viewed on 08 Mar 2012)

13

16

10

15

13

4

118

Anion recognition by novel ruthenium(ii) bipyridyl calix[4]arene receptor molecules, J Chem Soc Chem Comm   (1994) 1269-1271.

2

0

1

1

0

0

109

Carbon nanotubes/titanium dioxide (CNTs/TiO2) nanocomposites prepared by conventional and novel surfactant wrapping sol-gel methods exhibiting enhanced photocatalytic activity, App. Cat. B. Environ. 89 (2009) 503-509.

1

17

29

20

25

13

105

Electrochemical preparation of silicon and its alloys from solid oxides in molten calcium chloride, Angew Chem Int Ed, 43 (2004) 733-736.

9

11

11

21

13

3

105

New polyaza and polyammonium ferrocene macrocyclic ligands that complex and electrochemically recognize transition-metal cations and phosphate anions in water J Chem Soc Chem Comm (1993) 1046-1048.

0

0

2

0

1

0

105

 

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Latest publications [* denotes corresponding author(s)] (Click here for a full list)

2014

1.        Titanium carbide nanocube core induced interfacial growth of crystalline polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol lamellar shell for wide-temperature range supercapacitors,
Weng Y-T, Pan H-A, Wu N-L*, Chen GZ,
J. Power Sources, (2014, accepted)

2.        Investigation of electrochemical reduction of GeO2 for the preparation of Ge in molten CaCl2-NaCl,
Rong LB, He R, Wang ZY, Peng JJ, Jin XB,* Chen GZ,
Electrochim. Acta, (2014, online) (
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2014.09.107)

3.        (Open Access) Influences of graphite anode area on electrolysis of solid metal oxides in molten salts,
Chen HL, Jin XB*, Yu LP, Chen GZ*,
J. Solid State Electrochem., (2014, online) (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10008-014-2645-2)

4.        (Invited review) The FFC Cambridge Process and its relevance to valorisation of ilmenite and titanium-rich slag,
Chen GZ,
Mineral Proc. Extra. Metall. (TIMM C) (2014, accepted) (
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1743285514Y.0000000073) (Non-SCI)

5.        (Open Access) Electro-deposition and re-oxidation of carbon in carbonate containing molten salts,
Ijije HV, Lawrence RC, Siambun NJ, Jeong SM, Jewell DA, Hu D, Chen GZ*,
Faraday Discuss., (2014, online) (
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4FD00046C)

6.        (Open Access) Cryo-solvatochromism in ionic liquids,
Yu LP, Chen GZ*,
RSC Adv., 4 (2014) 40281 – 40285. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4RA08116A)

7.        Preparation of Mo nanopowder through electroreduction of solid MoS2 in molten KCl-NaCl,
Gao HP, Jin XB*, Zou SW, Ling FZ, Peng JJ, Wang ZY, Chen GZ,
PCCP, 16 (2014) 19514 - 19521. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cp01864h)

8.        Study of liquid ion diffusion in electroreduction of solid WS2 cathode to nanometer W in molten NaCl-KCl using an instantaneous ion release and diffusion model,
Gao HP, R LB, Tan MS, Wang ZY, Jin XB*, Chen GZ,
Scientia Sinica  Chimica, 44 (2014) 1354-1361.
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1360/N032014-00125) (Non-SCI)

9.        (Open Access, invited review) Carbon electrodeposition in molten salts: Electrode reactions and applications,
Ijije HV, Lawrence RC, Chen GZ*,
RAC Adv. 4 (2014) 35808–35817 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4ra04629c)

10.    Influences of ions and temperature on performance of carbon nano-particulates in supercapacitors with neutral aqueous electrolytes,
Chae JH, Chen GZ*,
Particuology 15 (2014) 9-17.
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2013.02.008)

11.    The ionic diffusion model for the solid oxide cathode and its verification by the electrolysis of Ta2O5 in molten CaCl2,
Chen H-L, Wang Z-Y, Jin X-B*, Chen GZ,
J. Electrochem.,
20 (2014) 266-271. (http://dx.doi.org/10.13208/j.electrochem.130886) (Non-SCI)

12.    Indirect electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon nanopowders in molten alkali carbonates: process variables and product properties,
Ijije HV, Sun C-G, Chen GZ*,
Carbon 73 (2014) 163-174. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.02.052)

13.    A sunlight assisted dual purpose photoelectrochemical cell for low voltage removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants in wastewater,
Kim G, Ebenezer ET, Chen GZ*,
Chem. Eng. J., 244 (2014) 411-421. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.01.090)

14.    Achieving low voltage half electrolysis with a supercapacitor electrode,
Peng C*, Hu D, Chen GZ*,
Energy & Environ. Sci.
, 7 (2014) 1018-1022. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C3EE43817A)

15.    Electrochemical fabrication of porous Sn/SnSb negative electrodes from mixed SnO2-Sb2O3,
Zhang JY, Wang ZY, Hong YZ, Li SX, Jin XB*, Chen GZ,
Electrochem. Commun. 38 (2014) 36-39. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2013.10.030)

16.    (Invited and peer refereed book chapter) Supercapattery with hybrids of redox active polymers and nanostructured carbons,
Stevenson AJ, Gromadskyi DG, Hu D, Chae JH, Guan L, Yu LP, Chen GZ*, 
in Nanocarbons for Advanced Energy Storage, ed. Feng XL, Wiley, (invited, sub. Mar. 2014) (Non-SCI)

 

2013

17.    (Invited and peer refereed book chapter) Advances in electrolytic extraction of metals and alloys from solid metal oxides,
Hu D, Chen GZ*,
in Springer Handbook of Electrochemistry, ed. Lyons KS, Springer. (accepted 05 Mar 2013)

18.    (Open Access) Near-net-shape production of hollow titanium alloy components via electrochemical reduction of metal oxide precursors in molten salts,
Hu D, Xiao W, Chen GZ*,
Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 44 (2013) 272-282. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11663-013-9800-5)
(Open Access)

 

2012 (selected)

19.    A robust alumina membrane reference electrode for high temperature molten salts,
Wang H, Siambun NJ, Yu LP, Chen GZ*,
J. Electrochem. Soc., 159 (
2012) H740-H746. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/2.033209jes)

20.    20 V stack of aqueous supercapacitors with carbon (-), titanium bipolar plates and CNT-polypyrrole composite (+),
Zhou XH, Chuang Peng C, Chen GZ*,
AIChE J., 58 (2012) 974-983. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.12632)

 

(Click here for a full list of publications)

 

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Selected papers in conference proceedings presented by GZC
(if you would like a copy of the following papers for academic use, please send an email to me.)

1.        (Invited Lecture) The FFC Cambridge Process for metal production: Principle, practice and prospect,
Chen GZ, Proc. 3rd Int. Slag Valorisation Symp., Leuven, Belgium, 19-20 Mar 2013.
http://slag-valorisation-symposium.eu/images/papers/s3_3_Chen.pdf

2.        (Keynote) Electrochemical near-net-shape production via the FFC Cambridge Process --- Dedication to the special session for the 2012 Max Bredig Award
Hu D, Chen GZ*,
PRiME 2008, (222nd Meeting of ECS and 2012 Fall Meeting of ESJ), Honolulu, Hawaii, Oct. 07-12, 2012.  (ECS Transactions, 50 (11) (2013) 29-37.)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/05011.0029ecst

3.        (Plenary) Fast electro-reduction of TiO2 precursors with bimodal porosity in molten CaCl2,
Li W, Chen HL, Huang FL, Jin XB, Xiao FM, Chen GZ*,
The 3rd Asian Conference on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids, 06-09 Jan. 2011, Harbin, China.

4.        (Talk) Microstructures of electro-carburised mild steels,
Siambun NJ, Hu D, Chen GZ*,
 at 218th ECS Meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada, 10 - 15 Oct, 2010.
Accepted by.ECS Transactions - Las Vegas, NV" Vol. 33, "Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 17".

5.        (Symposium Plenary) Solid state electro-reduction in liquid salts
Chen GZ*,
PRiME 2008, (214th ECS Annual Meeting), Honolulu, Hawaii, Oct. 12-17, 2008.
Published in ECS Transactions, 16(49) (2009) 205-210.

6.        Electro-deoxidation of solid chromium oxide in molten chloride salts
Gordo E, Chen GZ* and Fray  DJ,
EDP Congress 2005, Ed.  M. E. Schlesinger, TMS, (2005) 641-646.
(This paper is the first to propose a preferential growth mechanism for the formation of different particle morphologies, e.g. cube for Cr and nodules for Ti.)
Presented at TMS 2005, San Francisco, 12-18 Feb. 2005.

7.        (Light Metals Reactive Metals Technology Award) Understanding the electro-reduction of metal oxides in molten salts
Chen GZ* and Fray DJ,
Light Metals 2004, (2004) 881-886.
Presented at the Symposium of Recent Advances in Non-Ferrous Metals Processing, 133rd TMS Annual Meeting, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, March, 2004, and was recognised by the TMS Light Metal Division as the "most notable Reactive Metals Technology research paper published in Light Metals 2004".

8.        Tailoring the electrochemical properties of carbon nanotube-polypyrrole composite films for electrochemical capacitor applications
Hughes M, Chen GZ*, Shaffer MSP, Fray DJ, and Windle AH
Proceedings of the 202nd Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 25, 2002, 68 - 77, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, October 2002.

9.        (Keynote) Novel cathodic processes in molten salts
Chen GZ* and Fray DJ
MS6, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Molten Salt Chemistry and Technology, eds. Chen Nianyi, Qiao Zhiyu, Shanghai University Press, Shanghai, China, Oct. 2001, (2001) 79-85. ISNB 7-81058-391-3.
(This paper is the first public report on the three-phase interline model for electrolysis on solid insulator oxides.)

10.    (First Poster Prize) Electrochemical investigation of the formation of carbon nanotubes in molten salts
Chen GZ*, Kinloch I, Shaffer MSP, Fray DJ and Windle AH
Advances in Molten Salts----From Structural Aspects to Waste Processing, ed. M. Gaune-Escard, Begell House, Inc., Porquerolles Island, France (1999) 97-107 (The paper was presented as a poster and won the First Prize for Posters at the European Research Conference on Molton Salts, JUN 27-JUL 03, 1998, re-published in High Temp. Mater. Processes)

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Granted patents

  1. Sensors for neutral molecules
    Beer PD, Shade M, Chen Z
    (UK filing in Oct 1994, Int. Pub. No. WO9511449 )
  2. Removal of oxygen from metal oxides and solid solutions by electrolysis in a fused salt
    Fray DJ, Farthing TW, Chen Z
    (UK filing in June 1998, Int. Pub. No. WO9964638)
  3. Metal and alloy powders
    Chen GZ, Fray DJ
    (UK filing in Nov. 2000, Int. Pub. No. WO0240725 )
  4. Intermetallic Compounds
    Fray DJ, Copcutt R, Chen GZ
    (UK filing in Nov. 2000, Inter. Pub. No. WO200240748)
  5. Superconductor materials fabrication method using electrolytic reduction and infiltration
    Chen GZ, Fray DJ, Yan XY, Glowacki B
    (UK filing in Oct. 2001, Int. Pub. No.WO03031665)
  6. High temperature and sealed Ag/AgCl reference electrode
    Jin XB, Gao P, Wang DH, Hu XH, Chen Z
    (China filing in Mar. 2004, Pub. No. CN2685874)
  7. Synthesis of Metal Sulfides,
    Jin XB, Cheng SM, Chen Z, Hu XH, Wang DH,
    (China filing in Sept. 2004, Pub. No. CN1613750 )
  8. Electrochemical synthesis of composites
    Chen GZ (UK filing in Sep 2006, Int. Pub. No. WO2008032071)
  9. A method for preparation of metals from complex compounds
    Chen Z, Wang DH, Hu XH, Jiang K, Jin XB,
    (China filing in Sept. 2005,
    Pub. No.  CN1940143)
  10. An electrochemical method for ultrafine tantalum powder
    Jin XB, Chen Z, Wu T, Wang DH, Hu XH
    (China filing in Dec 2006, Pub. No. CN1994635).

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Selected invited presentations

 Conferences / Meetings / Workshops

1.      Electrochemical production of energy storage carbon from carbon dioxide in molten salts
Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids XXV, EUCHEM2014, Tallinn, Estonia, 6-11 July 2014.
http://www.euchem2014.ttu.ee/

2.      Supercapattery: Electrochemical energy storage beyond battery and supercapacitor
Symposium FC, 6th Forum on New Materials, CIMTEC2014 -  13th International Conference on Modern Materials and Technologies – Montecatini Terme, Tuscany, Italy, 8-20 June 2014.
http://www.cimtec-congress.org/2014/invited_forum.asp

3.      Interfacial conjugation in hybrids of nano-carbon and pseudo-capacitive materials,
Symp. 4a: Novel Materials and Devices for Energy Storage and Conversion: Electrochemical Capacitors,
64th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry, Santiago de Querétaro, México, 8-13 Sept. 2013.
http://annual64.ise-online.org/general/symposia.php#s4a

4.      On the correlation of electrochemical features with capacitance analysis,
2013 International Conference on Advanced Capacitors (ICAC2013) , Osaka, Japan, 27-30 May 2013.
http://www.icac2013.org/

5.      The FFC Cambridge Process for Metal Production: Principle, Practice and Prospect
3rd International Slag Valorisation Symposium, Leuven, Belgium, 19-20 Mar 2013.
http://www.slag-valorisation-symposium.eu/programme.php

6.      The supercapattery: Potential for energy storage,
New Energy Forum event, 'The energy storage revolution', London, 19 Nov 2012
http://www.synnogy.co.uk/forum/past-events/past-events-2012/

7.      Zero-cost engineering towards higher energy capacity in supercapacitors,
Invited lecture. Workshop on Advanced Supercapacitors, Alicante, Spain, 05-06 Sept. 2012
http://web.ua.es/es/spain-japan-workshop/invited-speakers.html

8.      Redox deposition of transition metal oxides on nanostructured carbons for supercapacitors,
Keynote. Symposium 4b: Advanced Batteries and Electrochemical Capacitors, 63rd Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry, Prague, Czech Republic, 19-24 Aug. 2012.

9.      Perception of supercapacitor and supercapattery,
Invited lecture.
220th ECS Meeting, Boston, 09-14 October 2011.

10.  Electrochemical capacitance of conducting polymers: From fundamentals to a 20V prototype supercapattery,
Keynote. 2nd International Symposium on Enhanced Electrochemical Capacitors, Poznan University of Technology, Poland 12-16 Jun 2011.

11.  From nanoscale reactions to supercapatteries,
Invited lecture. 1st International Symposium on Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage, Harnack-House, Berlin, Germany, Feb 27 - Mar 2, 2011. (www.chemener.de)

12.  Electro-reduction of solid TiO2 in molten CaCl2: Barriers and feasible solutions for the new making of titanium,
Keynote. Second International Round Table on Titanium Production in Molten Salts, MS Nordkapp from Tromsø to Trondheim, Norway.19-22 Sept. 2010.

13.  Supercapatteries from chemically modified carbon nanotubes,  
Keynote. The 8th International Symposium on New Materials and Nano-Materials for Electrochemical Systems, Shanghai, China, 11-15 Jul 2010.

14.  Liquid salts assisted electro-reduction of metal compound precursors to metal nanoparticulates,
Invited Lecture. Symposium 6: Electrodeposition for Nanoelectronic Applications; 60th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry, Beijing, (Aug. 2009).

15.  Innovation in Molten Salt Electrochemistry for Sustainable Metal Production
Plenary. The 27th Annual Conference on Science and Technology, Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metals Research (NIN), Xi'an (Feb. 2008).

16.  Electrolysis on Insulators: The FFC Cambridge Process
Invited Lecture. Midland Electrochemistry Group 2006 Annual Meeting, Leicester University (Apr. 2006).
(This presentation was given more specifically on the electrochemical aspects of the FFC Cambridge Process.)

17.  Intramolecular Communications through Electrostatic Pathways  
Invited Lecture. 4th International Society of Electrochemistry Spring Meeting, Singapore (Apr. 2006).

18.  May the FFC Cambridge Process Bring About Cheaper Titanium Powder?
Invited Lecture. PM Titanium Seminar, EURO PM2005, Prague (Oct.
2005)

19.  Combining Carbon Nanotubes and Conducting Polymers:  An Approach towards Advanced Electrochemical Capacitors
Invited Lecture. 2003 International Conference on Advanced Capacitors, Kyoto, (May 2003)

20.  Electrolysis of Solid Titanium Dioxide in Molten Salts
Invited Lecture. TiO2 2001, Montreal, Canada (May 2001).

 

Seminars

  1. Electrochemical capture and utilisation of carbon dioxide
    Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai, 25 Sept 2014
  2. An electrochemical approach towards utilisation of carbon dioxide,
    Irregular Chemistry Colloquia, Department of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, 14 April 2014.
    http://talks.st-andrews.ac.uk/talk/index/216
  3. Supercapattery: An energy storage prospect from nanotechnology
    Functional Group Seminar, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, 13 Mar 2014.
  4. Supercapattery and its implication for energy storage
    Invited Evening Lecture, Institute of Physics - Manchester and District Branch, 27 Feb. 2013.
  5. Electrochemical capacitance: Understanding and utilisation
    Invited Lecture Tour, Department of Chemical Engineering, (1) National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, (2) National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 05-06 June 2012.
  6. Metallic nanoparticulates of electronic significance from electrolysis in liquid salts
    Invited Seminar, Nokia research Centre, Cambridge, 25 Nov. 2011.
  7. Chloride ion enhanced CO2 absorption in hydroxylated ionic liquids with MEA
    Invited Seminar, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, 18 Aug. 2011.
  8. Electrochemistry of the Si/SiO2 couple in molten CaCl2 and the environmental implication,
    CEST Seminar “Topics in applied electrochemistry”, Wiener Neustadt, Austria, 11 Nov. 2010. (Abstract)
  9. Investigations of Liquid Salts based Green Chemical Processes
    Qingsong Lecture Series, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 13 July 2010
  10. Supercapacitors for large scale energy storage,
    Invited seminar, Dept. of Chem., Tsinghua University, Beijing, 29 Dec 2009.
  11. Building superpower from carbon nanotubes,
    49th Lecture, Forum of Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 24 Dec 2009.
  12. More affordable functional metals and alloys from the FFC Cambridge Process
    Invited Lecture, Forum with Visiting Research Expertise, Centre of Materials and Minerals, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (March 2009).
  13. Molten Salts Assisted Electrochemical Innovations for Functional Materials
    Invited Seminar, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (March 2009).
  14. Renewable Energy Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Electrochemical Science and Technologies
    Guest Professorship Seminar, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiujiang University (Feb 2008).
  15. Electricity and Carbon Nanotubes
    Invited Professorship Seminar, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille (Jun. 2007)
  16. Preparation of Carbon Nanotubes from Molten Salt
    Invited Seminar in Advanced Topics, Mater. Sci. & Eng., Inst. for Mater. Res., University of Leeds (Jan 2006).
  17. Titanium--The Metal of the 21st Century
    Invited Seminar, Scientific Society, Eton College (Oct. 2003).
  18. A Molten Salt Route for the Production of Carbon Nanotubes
    Invited Seminar, The 555th Foreigner Talk, The Foundation for the Promotion of Industrial Science, Tokyo University (May 2003).
  19. FFC Cambridge Process for Titanium
    Invited Seminar, Panzhihua Iron & Steel Group Co., Panzhihua, China (June 2002).
  20. Nanotube-Polymer Composites and Supercapacitors
    Invited Seminar, Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany (April 2002).
  21. A Novel Electrolytic Process for Titanium Production and its Application in Medical Materials
    Invited Lecture, Annual Meeting, Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (Dec. 1999).

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Personal

My name and home town in Chinese

(Nan2 Chang1)


Career development: Education

1978-1981, Teaching Diploma in Chemistry, Jiujiang Teacher Training College (now Jiujiang University)

1982-1985, MSc and Graduation Certificate in Physical Chemistry, Fujian Teachers University (now Fujian Normal University)
(Preparation of novel fibrous electrolytic MnO2 and its application in primary batteries)

1987-1992, PhD + DIC in Physical Chemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of London (now Imperial College London)
(Investigation of polymer modified electrodes by electrochemical in situ ESR and impedance spectroscopy)

Click here for more details

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My family

Happy George, George Junior and George’s Family! (Click any of the small photos below to see a larger version.)

 

Jun-06

  Feb-07

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 Apr-08

  May-08

 Jun-08

 Dec-08

   Keke&DadApr09a  Apr-09

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Aug-10

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 Mar-11

image099 May-11

image101 Jul-11

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 Jun-12

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    Feb-13

   KekeBerlin  Aug 13

OKCDec14 Dec-13

  May-14

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Jiang He

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Visits since 03 Nov. 2013:
 


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