Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics

Social Integration

Partner: International development agency - project ongoing


Around two thirds of Pakistan’s general population are thirty years old or younger and poverty and unemployment may leave many vulnerable to exploitation of various sorts.  In order to foster youth social integration and reduce social vulnerability, our international development Partner spearheads training and employment programs in the field, and was interested in methods for evaluating the effects of these programs on youth integration.

Approach and Method

A survey tool originally developed to measure perceived closeness within social relationships has been explored and validated through CeDEx research (see paper by Gaechter, Starmer and Tufano); and adapted to measure social cohesion within groups (view paper online).  This project further adapted this tool to quantitatively estimate levels of individual social integration, in order to track the effects of our Partner’s programs on youth integration over time (project ongoing). 

New recruits (the Target Group) completed the survey before program entry, as did a separate, comparison groups of individuals (Control Group).  Both groups then completed the survey again four months later.  The effects of training and employment programs on youth integration will be estimated by comparing changes in individuals’ social integration in the Target Group to changes in integration in the two Control Groups.

Results (ongoing)

Preliminary results indicate that the survey tool effectively tracks variation in how socially integrated individuals feel.  Further analyses will shed light on the extent to which individuals’ social integration changes through time, and as a result of participation in this Partner’s employment programs specifically.


Centre for Decision Research and Experimental Economics

Sir Clive Granger Building
University of Nottingham
University Park
Nottingham, NG7 2RD

telephone: +44 (0)115 951 4763
Enquiries: suzanne.robey@nottingham.ac.uk
Experiments: cedex@nottingham.ac.uk