School of Cultures, Languages and Area Studies

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Yang Lu

Assistant Professor of Chinese Language, Faculty of Arts



Yang joined the University of Nottingham in 2007 and before that she was a part-time Lecturer in Chinese Studies in the University of Reading and taught Mandarin Chinese in the London School of Economics and Political Sciences. Yang has taught all levels of Chinese since 1994 and contributed to the Open University's first textbook for distance learners of Chinese. Yang now teaches the final-year core language Chinese modules, UG and PG translation between Chinese and English and supervises MA and PhD students in the field of comparative literature, linguistic studies of comtemporary China; L2 acquisition in Chinese, pedagogy and assessment of L2 Chinese.

Yang has edited the first collection of research papers published in English in UK on teaching and learning Chinese in higher education. She has also published book chapters and journal articles on standardisation of L2 competence in Chinese, the criterion-related validity of HSK Level 3 and 4, pedogagic Chinese grammar and discourse analysis, etc. She is a peer-reviewer for two major British academic journals for applied linguistics studies. Yang is also a Senior Fellow of Higher Education Academy, U.K. and deputy-chair of the British Chinese Language Teaching Society from 2012 to 2016.

At the present, Yang is undertaking a large-scale empirical research on the relationship between CFL learners' sinogramphemic competence and their overall and spoken competence in L2 Chinese. The research is partly funded by the School. Yang is also collaborating with colleagues in the University of Southampton and University of Leeds on the HSK test taker characteristics, test performance and implications for HSK test constructsfirst. The research is funded by 汉考国际 (Chinese Test International).

Expertise Summary

a. standardisation of language competence in Chinese

b. sinographemic competence in Chinese

c. comparative literature studies

d. discourse analysis of Chinese written and spoken texts

e. assessment of L2 Chinese and English competence

e. pedagogic grammar for Chinese

e. cultural and social studies for contemporary China

Teaching Summary

Yang currently teaches core language modules to the graduating UG students and translation to both UG and MA students. She is also co-supervising PhD students on applied linguistic studies of Chinese.

Research Summary

1. Relationship between learners' L2 acquisition in Chinese and their sinographemic competence funded by the School of Languages, Cultures and Area Studies

2. HSK test taker characteristics, test performance and implications for HSK test constructs collaborated with the Ying Zheng of University of Southampton and Clare Wright in the Unviersity of Leeds

3. Comparative literature studies on classic and comtemporary Chinese and European literary works

4. Discourse analysis of Chinese written and spoken texts

5. Assessment of L2 competence in Chinese


Forthcoming: Assessing Learner Competence in L2 Chinese. Abingdon: Routledge.

Edited Book:

Teaching and Learning Mandarin Chinese in Higher Education: Theoretical and Practical Issues. Abingdon: Routledge.

Book Chapters:

Lu, Y. (2017) 'Exploring the Criterion-Validity of HSK Levels 3 and 4: Are Assessments and CEFR Standards Related? In: Y. Lu (ed.) Teaching and Learning Mandarin Chinese in Higher Education: Theoretical and Practical Issues.. Abingdon: Routledge.

Lu, Y. & L. Y. Song (2017) European Benchmarking Chinese Language: Defining the Competences in the Written Language. In: Y. Lu (ed.) Teaching and Learning Mandarin Chinese in Higher Education: Theoretical and Practical Issues. Abingdon: Routledge.

Lu, Y. ( 2014). A Hybrid of Inductive and Deductive Approach for teaching Chinese Grammar: the analytic approach. In: M.J. Xing and L. M. Li (eds.), Developing Pedagogies for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language in Higher Education. Applied Chinese language Studies V. London: Cypress Book Co. (UK) Ltd.

Lu, Y. (2010). Chinese EFL Learners' Discoursal Performance in Cambridge ESOL FCE Speaking Test: Culture-specific or Test-driven? In: L. Y. Chen and A. Curtis (eds.), Language Assessment for Chinese Learners. London: Taylor and Francis Group.

Lu, Y. (1997). New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching and SLA. In: J. G. Chong & X. L. Dong (eds.), Theory and Practice for Chinese Tertiary Education.

Lu, Y. (1996). Fuzziness in English Language and their Roles in Oral Communication, In: Q. Zong et all (Eds.), Shandong Tertiary Education, Vol. 1.

Journal Articles:

O'Sullivan, B. & Y. Lu, (2006). The Impact on Candidate Language of Examiner Deviation from a Set Interlocutor Frame in the IELTS Speaking Test. IELTS Research Report Volume 6, British Council and IDP: IELTS Australia.

Lu, Y. (2005). A Validation Study of the ECCE NNS and NS Examiners' Conversational Styles from a Discourse Analytic Perspective. Spaan Fellow Working Papers in Second or Foreign Language Assessment. Vol. 3 2005. English Language Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.

Lu, Y. (2003). Insights into the FCE Speaking Test, Research Notes 11, Cambridge, University of Cambridge, ESOL Examinations.

Lu, Y. (1996). Developments and Applications of Birmingham School Discourse Analysis. Foreign Languages Research, 4/96.

Lu, Y. (1996) Characteristics of Learner's Discourse Revealed by Spoken Discourse Analysis Method, Journal of Foreign Languages, 5/96.

Lu, Y. (1995 ). Interlanguage Pragmatics in Learner's Spoken Discourse, Foreign Language Teaching, 3/95.


Lu, Y. (2009). Unit 5 in 第一步Beginners Chinese, collaborated with Dept. of Languages FELS, Open University, U.K.

Past Research

1. Relationship between learners' spoken discourse features and their overall oral proficiency in English

2. Oral examiner's conversational styles and deviation from scripts and the impacts on test-takers' performance

3. Analytic approach for teaching beginners Chinese grammar and its impacts on their performance in summative assessment

4. A hybrid of inductive and deductive approach for teaching Chinese grammar to learners at threshold levels

5. Generality and specificity in teaching and assessing business Chinese

6. Criterion-related validity of standardised proficiency test of Chinese

7. Benchmarking for L2 competence in Chinese

8. validity and reliability of indirect methods for assessing oral proficiency in L2 Chinese

9. teaching pedagogic Chinese grammar and methodologies

School of Cultures, Languages and Area Studies

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