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Manuela Carbajal y Espejo

Other names/titles:
Gender: F
Ethnic origin: Unknown

Biographical details

From Ica, Peru, she gave most of her fortune to the independence cause. She gave news to General Tristán during the royalist occupation of Ica (under General Rodil). She ran a spy network that was able to pass news to Tristán in Churrutina and General Carratalá in Huamanga. There was a defeat for the patriots after which Carbajal had to hide as the royalists had a warrant for her arrest, but she did not cease her activities. (García y García, 246-247.)

She was awarded the Orden del Sol by San Martín in 1822. (Gaceta de Lima, 23-1-1822, p.4)

Related to Francisco Javier Eugenio Santa Cruz y Espejo, Quito, who subscribed to El Mercurio Peruano, 1791-93?

Life Events

Other 1822She was awarded the Orden del Sol.


García y García, Elvira, (1924), La mujer peruana a través de los siglos

García y García, Elvira, (1924), La mujer peruana a través de los siglos

, (1950), Gaceta del Gobierno de Lima Independiente, Tomos I-III, Julio 1822-dic 1822

Davies, Catherine, Brewster, Claire and Owen, Hilary, (2006), South American Independence. Gender, Politics, Text


There is no writing by this subject in the database.


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