Following Schön, other authors have offered definitions of reflection. Below are 3 examples:

" …the throwing back of thoughts and memories, in cognitive acts such as thinking, contemplation, meditation and any other form of attentive consideration, in order to make sense of them, and to make contextually appropriate changes if they are required." (Taylor 2000)

"Reflection is different from simply recalling an event, or even discussing a day at work with a colleague. The benefits of reflective practice are many and varied. It can lead to an analysis of (nursing) actions in such a way that it can become evident how things might have been done differently, or equally the recognition that things are done well and should be repeated." (Hogston and Simpson 1999)

"A process of looking back on what has been done and pondering on it and learning lessons from what did or did not work…. The act of deliberation, when the practitioner consciously stops and thinks what shall I do now?" (Conway 1994)

Reflection: summary