Molecular Bacteriology and Immunology Group

Prof. Dlawer Ala'Aldeen --


Professor of Clinical Microbiology

Head, Molecular Bacteriology and Immunology Group


Research interests

I have had a long-standing interest in the study of Neisseria meningitidis infections and vaccine development. My main focus is on the molecular pathogenesis of, and human genetic response to, N. meningitidis and Campylobacter jejuni. My research group and I are interested in defining the role of bacterial virulence factors in host-pathogen interaction and identifying their host receptors. We have also studied the population genetics of N. meningitidis and made significant contributions to this field. More recently, we have developed interest in studying the dynamics and genome evolution of N. meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Clinical duties My clinical committments consist of the management of patients with infectious diseases, control of hospital infection, and participating in the professional aspects of the diagnostic laboratory at Nottingham Unverisity Hospitals NHS Trust.
Teaching commitments. In addition to giving lectures, I have had the following organisational roles:
- Founder/Director of the MSc course in Clinical Microbiology (2004-2007)
- Convener of the Advnaced Clinical Microbiology module of the above MSc course (2004-9).
- Organisor and coordinator (1998-2005) of the "Medical Microbiology" course in our B.Med.Sci (Faculty of Medicine)

- Convener of the "Bacterial pathogenesis and infection" module of our M.Sc. course in Molecular Medical Microbiology (1999-2006)
Recent Secondments

Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
28/10/2009 to 5/4/2012

Deputy Director of Centre for Infection (Specialist and Reference Microbiology),

National boards and professional organisations:

1. Royal College of Pathologists
Director of Research, Royla College of Pathologists (2009-10)
- Member, Specialty Advisory Committee, (2006-10)
- Senior Examiner in MRCPath Microbiology, (2005-10)
- Chariman, Infection Research Subcommittee-Microbiology (Joint with, Royal College of Physicians) (2007-2009)
- Research Lead for Medical Microbiology (SAC), (2006-2009)
- Board Member, Blueskies Medical Microbiology Project, (2005-8)
- Trent Regional Committee, (2001-4)

2. Medical Research Council
- Member, Infections and Immunity Board (2006-10)
- Member, College of Experts, Infections and Immunity Board (2005-7)

3. Health Protection Agency
- Consutant, Centre for Infection (Specialist and Reference Microbiology) (2008 -2009)
- Member,Meningococcus Forum, UK (1998- )

4. Society for General Microbiology
Chairman, Federation of Infection Societies (FIS) Scientific Committee (2007)
Chairman, Clinical Microbiology Group, (2004 -2009 )

4. Editorial Board member
- BMC Microbiology (2005-)
- Journal of Medical Microbiology (2002-2009)
- Journal of Infection, (2001-4)

Selected papers (for more click here)

Alamro M, Bidmos FA, Chan H, Oldfield NJ, Newton E, Bai X, Aidley J, Care R, Mattick C, Turner DPJ, Neal KR, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Feavers I, Borrow R, Bayliss CD (2014). Phase Variation Mediates Reductions in Expression of Surface Proteins During Persistent Meningococcal Carriage. Infect Immun. In press

Mahdavi J, Pirinccioglu N, Oldfield NJ, Carlsohn E, Stoof J, Aslam A, Self T, Cawthraw SA, Petrovska L, Colborne N, Sihlbom C, Borén T, Wooldridge KG, Ala'Aldeen DA. (2014). A novel O-linked glycan modulates Campylobacter jejuni major outer membrane protein-mediated adhesion to human histo-blood group antigens and chicken colonization.. Open Biology. 22;4:130202.

Zorman JK, Esser M, Raedler M, Kreiswirth BN, Ala’Aldeen DAA,  Kartsonis N, Smugar SS, Anderson A, McNeely T and Arduino JM (2013). Naturally Occurring IgG Antibody Levels to the Staphylococcus aureus Protein IsdB in Humans.  Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 9:1857-64.

Snyder LA, Loman NJ, Faraj LA, Levi K , Weinstock G, Boswell TC , Pallen MJ, Ala’Aldeen DAA(2013). Epidemiological investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a six-year-long hospital outbreak using high-throughput whole genome sequencing. Eurosurveillance. 18 (42) :pii=20611

Mahdavi J, Royer P-J, Sjölinder HS, Azimi S, Self T, Stoof J, Wheldon LM, Brännström K, Wilson R, Moreton J, Moir JWB, Sihlbom C, Borén T, Jonsson A-B, Soultanas S, Ala’Aldeen DAA. (2013). Pro-inflammatory cytokines can act as intracellular modulators of commensal bacterial virulence. Open Biology. 3, 130048

Royer P-J, Rogers AJ, Wooldridge KG, Tighe PJ, Mahdavi J, Rittig MG, and Ala'Aldeen DAA (2013). Deciphering the contribution of human meningothelial cells to the inflammatory / antimicrobial response at the meninges. Infect Immun. 8, 4299-4310.

Oldfield NJ, Matar S, Bidmos FA, Alamro M, Neal KR, Turner DPJ, Bayliss CD & Ala’Aldeen DAA(2013). Prevalence and phase variable expression status of two autotransporters, NalP and MspA, in carriage and disease isolates of Neisseria meningitidis. PLoS ONE 8, e69746.

Abouseada NM, Assafi MSA, Mahdavi J, Oldfield NJ, Wheldon LM, Wooldridge KG and Ala'Aldeen DAA. (2012) Mapping the laminin receptor binding domains of Neisseria meningitidis PorA and Haemophilus influenzae OmpP2. PLoS ONE 7. e46233

Ibraz-Pavon AB, MacLennan J, Andrews NJ, Gray SJ, Urwin R, Clarke SC, Walker AM, Evans MR, Kroll JS, Neal KR, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Crook DW, Cann K, Harrison S, Cunningaham R, Baxter D, Kaczmarski E, McCarthy ND, Jolley KA, Cameron JC, Stuart JM and Maiden MCJ. 2011. Changes In Serogroup And Genotype Prevalence Among Carried Meningococci In The United Kingdom During Vaccine Implementation. The J Infect Dis. 204, 1046-53

Ala'Aldeen DAA, Oldfield NJ, Bidmos FA, Abouseada NM, Ahmed NW, Turner DPJ, et al. (2011) Carriage of meningococci by university students, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 17:1762-3

Tauseef I, Harrison OB, Wooldridge KG, Feavers IM, Neal KR, Gray SJ, Kriz P, Turner DPJ, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Maiden MCJ, and Bayliss CB.  (2011)  Influence of the Combination and Phase Variation Status of the Haemoglobin Receptors, HmbR and HpuAB, on Meningococcal Virulence. Microbiology. 157:1446-56 .

Bidmos F, Neal KR, Oldfield NJ, Turner DPJ, Ala’Aldeen DAA and Bayliss CD (2011). Rapid Clonal Expansion, Persistence and Clonal Replacement of Meningococcal Carriage Isolates in a 2008 University Student Cohort. J Clin Microbiol. 49, 506-512.

Tunio SA, Oldfield NJ, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Wooldridge KG and Turner DPJ (2010). The role of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA-1) in Neisseria meningitidis adherence to human cells.  BMC Microbiology. 10: 280-

Ala’Aldeen DAA, Flint M, Oldfield NJ, Omer SA, McNeil LK, Jiang Q, Murphy E, Giardina PC, Novikova EG, Dodge IL, Bayliss CD, Turner DPJ, Neal KR, Hoiseth SK, Jansen KU and Anderson AS.  (2010) Human antibody responses to the meningococcal factor H binding protein (LP2086) during invasive disease, colonization and carriage. Vaccine, 28: 7667-6675.

Oldfield NJ, Worrall KE, Rycroft AN, Ali T, Wooldridge and Ala'Aldeen DAA (2009) AasP autotransporter protein of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae does not protect pigs against homologous challenge. Vaccine 27:5278-83

Tunio SA, Oldfield NJ, Berry A, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Wooldridge KG & Turner DPJ (2010) The moonlighting protein fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase of Neisseria meningitidis : surface localization and role in host cell adhesion. Mol. Microbiol. 76 , 605-615.

Oldfield NJ, Worrall KE, Rycroft AN, Ali T, Wooldridge KG, Ala'Aldeen DAA (2009) AasP autotransporter protein of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae does not protect pigs against homologous challenge. Vaccine 27 , 5278–5283.

Orihuela C, Mahdavi J, Thornton J, Mann B, Wooldridge KG, Abouseada N, Oldfield NJ, Self T, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Tuomanen EI. (2009) Laminin receptor initiates contact of bacterial with the blood brain barrier in experimental meningitis models. J Clin Invest. 2009 119:1638-1646. (joint senior author). Paper highlighted in Nature [Bacterial break-in. (2009) Nature. 459: p487: 28 May 2009]

Li Y, Wooldridge KG, Javed MA, Tang C and Ala'Aldeen DAA (2009) Secreted proteins of Neisseria meningitidis protect mice against infection. Vaccine. 27:2320-5

Spence PR, Wright V, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Turner DPJ, Wooldridge KG Wooldridge and James R (2008) Validation of a Virulence and Epidemiology (VirEp) DNA microarray for Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 46, 1620-1627..

Ali T, Oldfield NJ, Wooldridge KG, Turner DPJ, and Ala'Aldeen DAA (2008) Functional characterization of AasP, a maturation protease autotransporter protein of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 76, 5608-5614.

Oldfield NJ, Donovan EA†, Worrall KE, Wooldridge KG, Langford PR, Rycroft AN & Ala'Aldeen DAA (2008). Identification and characterization of novel antigenic vaccine candidates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Vaccine 26, 1942-1954.

Maiden MCJ, Ibarz-Pavón AB, Urwin R, Gray SJ, Andrews NJ, Clarke SC, Walker AM, Evans MR, Kroll JS, Neal KR, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Crook DW, Cann K, Harrison S, Cunningham R, Baxter D, Kaczmarski E, MacLennan J, Cameron JC, Stuart JM. (2007) Impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines on carriage and herd immunity. J Infect Dis; In press

Ashgar SSA, Oldfield NJ, Wooldridge KG, Jones MA, Irving GJ, Turner DPJ and Ala’Aldeen DAA (2007). CapA, an Autotransporter Protein of Campylobacter jejuni, Mediates Association with Human Epithelial Cells and Colonization of the Chicken Gut. J. Bacteriol. 189: 1856–1865.

Oldfield NJ, Bland SJ, Taraktsoglou M, Dos-Ramos F, Robinson K, Wooldridge KG and Ala’Aldeen DAA (2007) T-cell stimulating protein a (TspA) of Neisseria meningitidis is required for optimal adhesion to human cells. Cellular Microbiol. 9, 463–478.

Turner DPJ, Marietou AG. Johnston L, Ho KKL, Rogers AJ, Wooldridge KG Ala’Aldeen DAA (2006). Characterisation of MspA - an immunogenic autotransporter protein mediating adhesion to epithelial and endothelial cells in Neisseria meningitides. Infect Immun, 74 ,2957–2964

Wooldridge KG, Kizil M , Wells DB & Ala'Aldeen DAA (2005) Unusual Genetic Organization of a Functional Type I Protein Secretion System in Neisseria meningitidis. Infect Immun. 73, 5554-5567

Robinson K, Wooldridge KG, Wells D, Dos Ramos F, Hasan A, Todd I, Robins A, James R, Ala'Aldeen DAA (2005). T-Cell-Stimulating Protein A Elicits Immune Responses during Meningococcal Carriage and Human Disease. Infect Immun. 73, 4684-4693

Ala’Aldeen DAA, Dangerfield P, Benbow E, Barer M, Irving W. (2005). Teaching Microbiology to Medical Students-debate. Microbiology Today. Aug. p134-135.

Henderson IR, Navarro-Garcia F, Desvaux M Fernandez R and Ala'Aldeen DAA (2004). Type V secretion pathway: the autotransporter story. MMBR. 68: 692-744.

Robinson K, Taraktsoglou K, Rowe K, Wooldridge KG, Ala'Aldeen DAA (2004). Secreted proteins from Neisseria meningitidis mediate differential human gene expression and immune activation. Cellular Microbiology. 6: 927-938.

Constantin D, Cordenier A, Robinson K, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Murphy S (2004) Neisseria meningitidis induced death of cerebrovascular endothelium: mechanisms triggering transcriptional activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase". J Neurochem. 89; 1166 1174.

Goulding JN, Stanley J, Olver W, Neal KR, Ala'Aldeen DAA and Arnold C (2003), Independent subsets of amplified fragments from the genome of Neisseria meningitidis identify the same invasive clones of ET37 and ET5 J Med Microbiol, 52, 151-154

Bebb JR, Bailey-Flitter N, Ala'Aldeen DAA and Atherton JA (2003) Mastic gum has no effect on Helicobacter pylori load in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother 52, 522-523

Loughlin MF, Ala'Aldeen DAA and Jenks P (2003) Monotherapy with mastic does not eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection from mice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 51,367-71

Turner DPJ, Wooldridge KG, Ala'Aldeen DAA. (2002) Autotransported serine protease A(AspA) of Neisseria meningitidis: an immunogenic, surface-exposed outer-membrane and secreted protein. Infect Immun, 70, 4447-4461.

Maiden et al (2002) Carriage of serogroup C meningococci 1 year after meningococcal C conjugate polysaccharide vaccinatino. Lancet 359. p1829-30

Ala'Aldeen DAA. (2002) A non-mulitresistant community MRSA exposes its genome. Lancet 359. 1791-2

Constantin D, DAA Ala'Aldeen, S Murphy (2002) Transcriptional activation of nitric oxide synthase-2, and NO-induced cell death, in mouse cerebrovascular endothelium exposed to Neisseria meningitidis. J Neurochem 81; 270-276.

Robinson K, KR Neal, C Howard, J Stockton, K Atkinson, E Scarth, J Moran, A Robins, I Todd, E Kaczmarski, S Gray, I Muscat, R Slack and DAA Ala'Aldeen. (2002). Characterisation of humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by meningococcal carriage. Infect Immun 70; 1301-1309.

Ala'Aldeen DAA. (2001) Risk of deliberately induced anthrax outbreak. Lancet 358. p1387

Abdel Hadi H, Wooldridge KG, Robinson K, Ala’Aldeen DAA. (2001) Identification and Characterisation of App: an Immunogenic Autotransporter Protein of Neisseria meningitidis.  Mol Microbiol. 41, 611-624.

Ala'Aldeen DAA and H Grundmann (2001) Unveiling of genetic basis of resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics. Lancet, 357; 1218-1219.

Turner PC, CE. Thomas, I Stojiljkovic, C Elkins, G Kizel, DAA Ala'Aldeen, and P. F. Sparling (2001). Neisserial TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins: detection, regulation and distribution of three putative candidates identified from the genome sequences.  Microbiology 147: 1277-1290

Wells D, Teigh P, Wooldridge KG, Robinson K, Ala’Aldeen DAA (2001). Differential gene expression during meningeal-meningococcal interaction:  evaluation for self-defence and early release of cytokines and chemokines. Infect Immun, 69; 2718-2722.

Goulding JN, Hookey JV, Stanley J, Olver W, Neal KR, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Arnold C. (2000).  Fluorescent amplified-fragment length polymorphism genotyping of Neisseria meningitidis identfies clones associated with invasive disease.  J Clin Microbiol; 38, 4580-4585.

Ait-Tahar K, KG Wooldridge, DPJ Turner, M Atta, I Todd, DAA Ala'Aldeen (2000) Auto-transporter A (AutA) protein of Neisseria meningitidis: a potent CD4+ T-cell and B-cell stimulating antigen detected by expression cloning. Mol Microbiol. 37, 1094-1105.

Ala'Aldeen DAA , KR Neal, K Ait-Tahar, JS Nguyen-Van-Tam, A English, TJ Falla, PM Hawkey, RCB Slack (2000). Dynamics of meningococcal long-term carriage among University students and their implications on mass-vaccination. J Clin Microbiol. 38:2311-2316.

Neal KR, JS Nguyen-Van-Tam, R Madeley, K Ait-Tahar, M Vale, RCB Slack, DAA Ala'Aldeen. (2000) Changing carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis amongst university students during the first week of term. cross sectional study. BMJ 320: 846-849.

Kizil G, I Todd , M Atta, SP Borriello, K Ait-Tahar and DAA Ala'Aldeen. (1999)Identification and characterisation of TspA, a major CD4+ T-cell and B-cell stimulating Neisseria-specific antigen. Infect Immun. 67, 3533-3541.

Neal KR, JS Nguyen-Van-Tam, RCB Slack, EB Kaczmarski, A White, DAA Ala'Aldeen. (1999) Seven week interval between acquisition of a meningococcus and the onset of invasive disease. Epidemiol Infect. 123: 507-9.

Huwez FU, D Thirwell, A Cockayne, DAA Ala'Aldeen. (1998) Mastic gum kills Helicobacter pylori. New Eng J Med. 339, 1946.

Powell NBL, Bishop K, Palmer HM, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Gorringe AR and Borriello SP (1998) Differential binding of apo and holo human transferrin to meningococci and co-localisation of the transferrin binding proteins (TbpA and TbpB). J Med Microbiol, 47, 257-264.

Ala'Aldeen DAA and Borriello SP. (1996) The meningococcal transferrin-binding proteins 1 and 2 are both surface exposed and generate bactericidal antibodies capable of killing homologous and heterologous strains. Vaccine, 13, 49-53.

Ala'Aldeen DAA , Westphal AH, de Kok A, Weston V, Atta M, Baldwin TJ, Bartley J, and Borriello SP (1996). Cloning, Sequencing, Characterisation and implications on vaccine design of the Novel Dihydrolipoyl Acetyltransferase of Neisseria meningitidis. J Med Microbiol ; 45, 419-432.

Pintor M, Ferrón C, Gomez JA, Powell NBL, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Borriello SP, Criado1 MT and Ferreirós CM. (1996) Blocking of Iron Uptake from Transferrin by Antibodies Against the Transferrin Binding Proteins in Neisseria meningitidis. Microb Pathog; 20, 127-139.

Ala'Aldeen DAA, Stevenson P, Griffiths E, Gorringe A, Iron L, Robinson A, Hyde S, and Borriello SP. (1994) Immune response in humans and animals to meningococcal transferrin-binding proteins: implications for vaccine design. Infect. Immun 62: 2984-2900.

Ala'Aldeen DAA, Davies HA, Wall RA, Borriello SP. (1994) The 70 kilodalton iron regulated protein of Neisseria meningitidis: studies on surface exposure and functional attributes of common epitopes. Vaccine, 12: 535-541.

Bhatt R, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Baldwin T, and Borriello SP. (1994) The 126 Kilodalton protein of Listeria monocytogenous is not a transferrin binding protein. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 123: 119-124.

Atta M, Lim KL, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Powell RJ, Todd I. (1994) Detection of anti-fibronectin antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 54: 117-124.

Ala'Aldeen, DAA, Powell NBL, Wall RA, Borriello SP. (1993). Localisation of the meningococcal receptors for human transferrin. Infect. Immun. 61: 751-759.

Ala'Aldeen, DAA, Borriello SP, Griffiths E. (1993). Alteration of transfer ribonucleic acid of Neisseria meningitidis following growth in the presence of human transferrin. J Med Microbiol. 38: 442-448.

Wilton J, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Palmer HM, Borriello SP. (1993). Cloning and partial sequence of transferrin-binding protein 2 of Neisseria meningitidis using a novel method:Twin N-terminal PCR. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 107: 59-66.

Palmer HM, Powell NBL, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Wilton J and Borriello SP. (1993). Neisseria meningitidis transferrin-binding protein 1 expressed in Escherichia coli is surface exposed and binds human transferrin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 110: 139-146.

Griffiths E, Stevenson P, Byfeild P, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Borriello SP, Holland J, Parsons T, and Williams P. (1993) Antigenic relationship of transferrin binding proteins from Neisseria meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae: Cross-reactivity of antibodies to NH2 terminal peptides. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 109: 85-92.

Palmer HM, Powell NBL, Ala’Aldeen DAA, Wilton J and Borriello SP. (1993). Neisseria meningitidis transferrin-binding protein 1 expressed in Escherichia coli is surface exposed and binds human transferrin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 110: 139-146.

Ala’Aldeen DAA, Wall RA, Borriello SP. (1990) Immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of the 70-kDa iron-regulated protein of Neisseria meningitidis in man and animals. J Med Microbiol. 32: 275-281.

Ala’Aldeen DAA, Davies HA, Wall RA, Borriello SP. (1990) The 70-kDa iron-regulated protein of Neisseria meningitidis is not the receptor for human transferrin. FEMS Microbiol Lett 69: 37-42.

Ala’Aldeen DAA and Barer MR (1989) Bacterial growth and toxin production in ileostomy effluents. J Med Microbiol. 28: 287-290

Books, Chapters, reviews

Ala’Aldeen DAA and Wooldridge KG (2011). Bacterial pathogenesis.  In: Medical Microbiology. Editors: Greenwood et al. 18th Edition. Churchill Livingstone. London.

Oldfield NJ and Ala’Aldeen DAA (2011), Neisseria and moraxella: Meningitis; septicaemia; gonorrhoea; respiratory infections. In: Medical Microbiology. Editors: Greenwood et al. 18th Edition. Churchill Livingstone. London.

Ala'Aldeen DAA, Wooldridge KGW and Turner DPJ (2009) Protein secretion and and pathogenesis in Neisseria meningitidis. In: Bacterial Secreted proteins: Secretary mechanisms and role in pathogenesis. Editors: Wooldridge KGW. Horizon Scientific Press.

Irving W, Boswell T and Ala’Aldeen DAA (2005) Instant notes in Medical Microbiology (300 pages). Bios Scientific Publishers Ltd. Oxford. [Book]

Ala’Aldeen DAA and Hiramatsu K (2004) Staphylococcus aureus: Clinical and molecular aspects. Horwood publishers, Chichester, UK. [Book]

Ala'Aldeen DAA (2004) Neisseria meningitidis. In: Principles and practice of clinical bacteriology. Editors: Gilaspy S. and Hawkey P. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Second edition.

Ala’Aldeen DAA (2002). Bacterial pathogenesis. In: Medical Microbiology. Editors: Greenwood D, Slack R, and Peutherer J. 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone. London.

Ala'Aldeen DAA (1997) Neisseria meningitidis. In: Principles and practice of clinical bacteriology. Editors: Emmerson AM, Hawkey P and Gilaspy S. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. p277-304.

Ala'Aldeen DAA (1997) Current developments in vaccines against meningococcal disease. Culture. 18, 1-4.

Westphal AH, de Kok A, Ala'Aldeen DAA, Atta M, Veenhuis, M. (1996) Lipoamide dehydrogenase from Neisseria meningitidis. Flavius and Flaboproteins (Ed. K.S. Stevenson). University of Calgery Press.

Ala'Aldeen DAA. (1996) Vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis: past, present and future. Biotecnologia Aplicada, 13, 1-7.

Ala'Aldeen DAA. (1996) Transferrin receptors of Neisseria meningitidis: promising candidates for a broadly cross-protective vaccine. J Med Microbiol. 44, 237-243.

Ala'Aldeen DAA (1996) Meningococcal vaccines: the challenge and the prospects. PHLS Micobiol Dig, 13, 152-157.

Ala'Aldeen DAA and Cartwright KAV (1996) Neisseria meningitidis: Vaccines and vaccine candidates . J Infect. 33, 153-157.

Cartwright KAV and Ala'Aldeen DAA (1996) Neisseria meningitidis: Clinical Aspects. J Infect. 34, 19-23.

Ala’Aldeen DAA and Hormaeche C. (1995) Clinical and molecular aspects of bacterial vaccine development. 400 pages. John Willey and Sons. Chichester. [Book]

Ala’Aldeen DAA and Griffiths E. (1995) Vaccines against meningococcal diseases. In: Molecular and clinical aspects of vaccine development. Editors: Ala’Aldeen DAA and Hormaeche C E. John Wiley andSons, Chichester. p 1-39.

Contact details

Professor Dlawer A.A. Ala'Aldeen
Molecular Bacteriology and Immunology Group
Division of Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
University Hospital
Queen's Medical Centre
Nottingham NG7 2UH
United Kingdom