Terry Borton’s (1970) 3 stem questions: 'What?', 'So What?' and 'Now What?' were developed by John Driscoll in 1994, 2000 and 2007. Driscoll matched the 3 questions to the stages of an experiential learning cycle, and added trigger questions that can be used to complete the cycle.

The stem questions are easy to remember. Click on the items below to find out more…

The following pieces using Driscoll’s cycle were written by a paramedic reflecting on a serious incident and by a nurse reflecting on a letter she received from a patient’s family

Reflection on a Significant Incident from Practice (PDF)

Example portfolio evidence: letter (PDF)