Please select any of the folllowing buttons to view further information related to this learning resource.


  • Case study: A case study is often used as the basis for research. A problem or issue is highlighted and this forms the "case". The researchers then uses this "case" as the basis of their research. The conclusions from a case study can then sometimes be used to generalise about the intervention or interventions that could be used to solve the problem
  • Clinical trial: A clinical trial is used to compare one intervention against another. For example, if you wished to assess the effectiveness of a drug, you could set up a clinical trial consisting of a group of people who are administered the drug and a group of people who are not. The size of population used in a clinical trial affects the validity of a clinical trial. For example, a large population group that are trialled will provide more conclusive evidence than a small population.
  • Journals: Journals are published at regular intervals, either weekly, fortnightly, monthly or quarterly and contain articles which outline current practice or research and allow a forum for researchers to disseminate their research findings.
  • Peer review: Peer review is used to assess the quality of a journal article. Experts in the subject field will be asked to review an article and provide comments. They may decide that some amendments need to be made to the article before it is published, or they may decide that the article is not good enough to be published. This ensures that only the best quality articles are included within peer-reviewed articles.


Referencing using Modern Harvard (RLO) An introduction to modified Harvard, concentrating on 'traditional' literature (books, journals, etc).
NUsearch NUsearch is the library online catalogue for Nottingham. You can use this to find what books are available in the library but also what journals are held by the library in both print and electronic format. Follow the SFX links to take you to the online version of the journal. Library catalogues at other Universities will perform similar functions and are usually linked to from the University web page.



This resource was developed by:

With thanks to the following who reviewed the content of the resources:

School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham

Developer: Liz Hilton

Content authors: Wendy Stanton, Jenny Drury

Mentor: Richard Windle

Redeveloped by: Kirstie Coolin 2017

Learning Object Copyright and Terms of Use

All Learning Objects developed by the University of Nottingham School of Health Sciences, and their aggregate parts (eg text, animations), are copyright of the School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham. Learning Objects are available for use under the Creative Commons 2.0 licence (BY-NC) and the conditions below.

Terms of Use

Private individuals, and publicly-funded educational and other institutions, may link to and use the Learning Objects on this site without restriction for non-commercial educational purposes. Use of any Learning Objects for any commercial purpose, or by any profit-making commercial entity, is not permitted without our express permission. If you wish to use a Learning Object for any commercial, revenue-generating or non-educational purpose, you must contact us to negotiate terms of use and payment.

We much prefer that you use this and other Learning Objects by linking to them on this website as:

  • this ensures you're always using the most up-to-date version
  • we gain data on usage of the Learning Objects, from access statistics and user feedback forms

Local circumstances, such as network security policies, may constrain your ability to link to external sites, or may impair the usability of our objects. If you're unable to run our Learning Objects 'from source' for these or other reasons, please contact us with a brief explanation of your circumstances and we may provide you with specified Learning Objects as an IMS Content Package.


Modification to adapt Learning Objects to local circumstances is permitted, with the following restrictions:

  1. The modified version must clearly display the University of Nottingham logo, and the School copyright notice.
  2. The modified version must not be distributed outside the modifying institution without the express permission of the School.


If you have any queries about our Learning Objects, please contact


Please use the attribution below if you wish to refer to our learning objects. If you use Firefox, you can install the useful OpenAttribute add-on to allow you to easily copy and reference these and other materials marked as Creative Commons.

Creative Commons logo Learning Objects for Healthcare by School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.

100% Complete