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the University of Nottingham

School of Health Sciences
Referencing Tool

Other sources - Personal communication

This relates to unpublished written or verbal communication and you should obtain permission from the author of the communication before using.

Author. … (year) … Personal Communication. … (Identify where it is if you have included it)

Bloggs, J. (2021) Personal communication.

Note: If you can include a copy of the communication in an appendix, then the reference can include the appendix.

Bloggs, J. (2021) Private communication, (Appendix 4).

Note: If the communication was by email, then include the title and date of the email.

Bloggs, J. (2021) Campaign: Noise and unruly behaviour in classrooms, Email to S Smith, 14 March.

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