Paediatric Accident and Emergency Research Group


Evidence-based guidelines for the management of common and important acute paediatric presentations to hospitals


Breathing Difficulty: An evidence based guideline for the management of children presenting with acute breathing difficulty



Dr Monica Lakhanpaul1, Dr Kate Armon1, Miss Philipa Eccleston1, Dr Roderick MacFaul2, Dr Stephanie Smith3, Dr Harish Vyas3, Dr Ursula Werneke4, Miss Lynn Williams3, Professor Terence Stephenson1.


Developed                        January           2002
Date for review               January           2005


Please note that following good clinical practice guidelines can improve patient outcomes. However, guidelines should be used in the context of the clinical condition of each individual patient. The clinical decisions used to manage patients with acute breathing difficulties remain the responsibility of the health professionals looking after that patient. Neither the guideline authors nor the website server providing access to the guideline take any responsibility for patient outcomes.

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1Academic Division of Child Health,

School of Human Development, University of Nottingham,

University Hospital, Nottingham NG7 2UH.


2Pinderfields General Hospital

Aberford Road, Wakefield WF1 4DG.


3Queen’s Medical Centre

University Hospital NHS Trust

Derby Road

Nottingham NG7 2UH.


4Maudsley Hospital

London SE5 8AZ.



Conflict of interest: none.

Funding for guideline development

Children Nationwide funds high quality research into a wide range of serious diseases and conditions affecting babies, infants and children. Our purpose is to provide support and opportunities to exceptionally talented research Doctors, who are undertaking important and innovative projects, which if successful, are likely to attract continuation funding from elsewhere.