Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Group
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Philip Krause

PhD Research Student, Faculty of Engineering



Phil Krause did a technical apprenticeship in the early 1970's and has worked for over 40 years in most disciplines of electrical and mechanical design engineering. Studying with the Open University from the early 1980's in his spare time completed credits for multiple degrees while working freelance in engineering design. Phil also built his own self-build house in the 1980's, also in his spare time. Keen on all disciplines of science, but follows F1 for recreation. In 2014 while working part-time, completed an MSc with Cranfield University in Computational Engineering. He enjoyed research so much he decided to study full time. Having just completed an Mres at Cranfield University in ultra-precision engineering and nanotechnology, he has now started a PhD at the University of Nottingham under Prof Richard Leach.

Research Summary

PhD Title: Development of hybrid control strategy for all-optical dimensional measuring system

Supervisors: Prof Richard Leach, Dr Wahyudin Syam


The strong demands for high precision micro-scale features and components require high-accuracy micro-scale coordinate measurement. A non-contact (optical) based micro-scale coordinate measuring machine, a so-called all-optical dimensional measuring system (AODMS), is being developed within the Manufacturing Metrology Team to be able to measure micro-scale components with high accuracy utilising information-rich metrology principles based on rigorous measurement modelling and a priori information.

Develop a hybrid feedback and feedforward control for the 3-axes linear motion stage of the AODMS for maximum linear-motion accuracy. A synchronisation issue among stereo-photogrammetry, focus variation and coherence scanning interferometer-based sensors and the 3-axes motion stages will be addressed with the proposed hybrid control method. Additionally, to verify the performance of the developed AODMS and develop a method to estimate the uncertainty of measurement results of an industrial micro part.

Past Research

MSc Title: Material Reduction in Beverage Can Production

Supervisors: Prof Karl Jenkins

University: Cranfield University 2015


This thesis investigates material reduction in aluminium beverage cans in three parts which are then combined.

Part1 Waste Reduction

The anisotropic properties of the sheet aluminium used in the manufacture of beverage cans produces a regular feathered edge at the top of the can following forming. By changing the initial cut edge from round to irregular to compensate for these peaks and troughs the amplitudes were reduced enabling trim reduction. This reduced cut edge was fed back into the initial cut out pattern to reduce the material used otherwise only scrap is increased. A tight packing mathematical model was produced for this analysis where 0.77% material and financial savings were made.

Part2 Base Profile Strength

A Finite Element model of a radiused dome profile was created and compared with an elliptical dome which was found to be stronger so the dome depth could be reduced. A CAD model was created of this new can and material was reduced by 0.91% equivalent to 0.54% financial saving.

Part3 Can shape Optimisation

A CAD model of the can was created and parameters given values used to create a mathematical model. This model agreed with the CAD model to 5 decimal places. An optimiser was used to minimise material while maintaining the can internal volume. This saved 2.34% material equivalent to 1.39% financial saving.

The findings of these 3 parts where combined which increased financial savings to 4.97%.

MRes Title: Oxidation Resistant Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes by Synthesising CuNi Nanowires

Supervisors: Dr Zhaorong Huang

University: Cranfield University 2018


This research attempts to find a replacement for ITO that is flexible and doesn't oxidise by synthesising CuNi nanowires in a single pot process. Indium is scarce, expensive, and non-flexible so has to be printed on solid substrates such as glass. It involved costly and wasteful processes to apply and cure and is running out. Copper nanowires are a cheap alternative but they oxidise. The simple difference between synthesising Cu NW's and CuNi NW's is the addition of glucose which is low cost. The nickel inhibits oxidation so no extra processes are required to protect them.

Copper-nickel nanowires have rarely been synthesised and this research explains how to and shows that copper-nickel nanowires could directly replace ITO.

This research shows a systematic approach to solving the problem, by varying the glucose and heat cycle to maximise the aspect ratio and achieve a nickel content of 5 > 20%. Once the best nanowires were synthesised, the ink concentration and thickness was varied to optimise the optoelectronic properties.

Many CuNi NW's were grown with >700 aspect ratio and Ni content 5 > 20% by adjusting the glucose content. The aspect ratio increases when the synthesis temperature is lowered as low as 160 °C while maintaining the Ni content range. A compromise is necessary as higher nickel content reduces the aspect ratio. A synthesis of 8.9% Ni was found to be as conductive after 112 days, as it was when it was made, thus showing that CuNi alloy does inhibit oxidation.

This research has shown that CuNi NW's can replace ITO in every area while being over 100 times less expensive and easier to make, apply and cure, enabling more uses of this technology in the future. They are also flexible which will allow even more areas of use.

Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Group

The University of Nottingham
Faculty of Engineering
The University of Nottingham
University Park
Nottingham, NG7 2RD