Referencing and Bibliographies

The information on this page is designed to complement the support and advice of Academic Schools and Departments. Please follow your department's guidelines and only use the materials offered here to supplement these.

Several of the links here relate to EndNote, which is a piece of bibliographic management software designed to manage references when writing dissertations and long projects. It is especially helpful at postgraduate level. Many departments recommend EndNote. Currently the University is offering training on EndNote version X8.

Note: these resources are listed in alphabetical order.

student working on a laptop 



Links to Study Resources for Referencing and Bibliographies
Resource TitleDescription of ResourceSource

Note about EndNote: Staff and research students with a UoN PC should contact their local ITS support.  EndNote for use on personally-owned PCs and Macs at an academic discount: for further information please search for EndNote on the Software Library.


APA style

Guide to using the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style using Adobe audio/visual tutorials

American Psychological Association

Compiling a working bibliography

PDF file icon Advice on when to start collecting information, what details to collect and having a system

University of Nottingham

EndNote software website

Product information 

Bilaney Consultants, EndNote - CHEST

EndNoteX6 guide

PDF file icon  Libraries, Research and Learning Resources Handbook including visuals to guide you through creating, importing and using references

Note: the university is currently offering training on EndNote X7

LRLR, University of Nottingham

EndNote X7 guide

PDF file icon  Libraries, Research and Learning Resources Handbook providing an introduction for referencing and citing using EndNote X7

LRLR, University of Nottingham

EndNote Training

EndNote Training course in Moodle (LRLR)

UNUK > Professional Service Departments > Libraries and Research and Learning Resources

University of Nottingham (UoN log-in access only)

EndNote Xerte Tutorial

Using EndNote Referencing Management Software - includes videos

University of Nottingham

EndNote Online

Table of contents guide to using EndNote Online

Thomson Reuters

Managing references

Advice on EndNote and other strategies for managing your references

Studying Effectively, University of Nottingham

MLA (Modern Language Association) referencing Style

Includes a quick guide on how to create an MLA 'Works Cited' list

MLA Style Center

Recurrent numerical referencing (IEEE system)

Often used in the sciences and engineering, this system gives each source cited a number; the list at the end of the document lists sources in numerical order, in the order in which they cited in the text. (See below for Royal Society of Chemistry version).

Murdoch University

Referencing, bibliographies and using sources: mind-map

PDF file icon  Overview mind-map on why you need to reference, the principles for what to do, where problems can arise, and when to reference.  Identifies the difference between referencing 'in-text' and the list of sources/references at the end of an assignment. University of Nottingham

Referencing style guides

Advice and information on referencing systems including Chicago and MLA

University of York

RLO on Referencing your work using Harvard

How to reference books, journals, electronic media (e.g. podcasts), electronic sources (e.g. websites), government publications, and other types of source materials. 

Select F5 or refresh once page open. Site uses flash.

University of Nottingham

Royal Society of Chemistry referencing system

Select the ''Download' option for a PDF copy of their guidance.  This uses a recurrent numerical referencing system (as used by the IEEE see above. This link provides further details on this type of system and working with different types of sources).

Royal Society of Chemistry

Things to consider for storing your bibliographic information

PDF file icon Using reading journals, index cards and/or computers to manage references

University of Nottingham

What are bibliographies and references?

PDF file icon Understanding and identifying bibliographies and how these differ from a list of references; citing and referencing; how to present references; and how to locate author and publisher information 

University of Nottingham

Why do I need references and a bibliography?

PDF file icon The purposes of referencing and descriptions of the different referencing and bibliography styles

University of Nottingham