Course overview

Are you passionate about environmental protection, wildlife conservation and ecology?

Our course uncovers the human impacts on our natural environment. You will study environmental threats and management. The biggest threats to biodiversity are climate change, habitat loss, invasive species. You'll study the effect of these threats, and learn ways to manage and reduce them.

Topics include:

  • Ecology
  • Conservation
  • Animal behaviour
  • Botany
  • Sustainability
  • Environmental protection

Our flexible course means you can choose the modules that interest you most. 

Practical work

You'll gain experience in surveying techniques that are used when working as an ecologist. Day trips, field work and visits to local sites will include activities such as:

  • bat surveys
  • phase one habitat surveys
  • sustainable homes
  • renewable energy
  • winter tree ID

There is no additional costs to you for these activities.

Year in Computer Science

You can choose to add this optional additional year when you start your degree. It takes place between your second and third years. You'll learn how to work across other science disciplines and develop your computational skills. This is increasingly important to help solve some of the biggest challenges we face. Module topics will cover:

  • Programming
  • Software Development
  • Modelling
  • Databases
  • Problem Solving
  • Image Processing

You'll study at our Jubilee Campus, taught by experts from the School of Computer Science. If you choose this option, your degree certificate will change to ‘…with a Year in Computer Science'.

Why choose this course?

Passionate teaching

You'll be taught by active researchers who work with environmental consultancies on bioenergy technology projects.

Placement opportunity

Get real-life experience with a possible industry placement year.

Study abroad

You'll have the opportunity to apply to study abroad and gain a global perspective of environmental science

Training by ecologists

Ecologists from local consultancies deliver training and expertise

Entry requirements

All candidates are considered on an individual basis and we accept a broad range of qualifications. The entrance requirements below apply to 2022 entry.

UK entry requirements
A level BBC in Clearing for home students

Please note: Applicants whose backgrounds or personal circumstances have impacted their academic performance may receive a reduced offer. Please see our contextual admissions policy for more information.

Required subjects

A level biology at grade C or above 

IB score 28; 5 in biology at Higher Level in Clearing for home students

A levels

BBC, biology required at grade C or above in Clearing for home students.

Other subjects can include chemistry, environmental science, geography, psychology, maths and physics.

Citizenship studies, critical thinking, general studies and leisure studies not accepted. 

You can apply to transfer to the MSci degree, subject to meeting minimum academic requirements of 55% at the end of year two at your first sitting.

Foundation progression options

If you have achieved high grades in your A levels (or equivalent qualifications) but do not meet the current subject entry requirements for direct entry to your chosen undergraduate course, you may be interested in our science foundation programme.

There is a course for UK students and one for EU/international students.

Applicants must also demonstrate good grades in previous relevant science subjects to apply. You are guaranteed a place on selected undergraduate courses if all progression requirements are met.

Mature Students

At the University of Nottingham, we have a valuable community of mature students and we appreciate their contribution to the wider student population. You can find lots of useful information on the mature students webpage.

Learning and assessment

How you will learn

Teaching methods

  • Lab sessions
  • Lectures
  • Seminars
  • Tutorials
  • Workshops
  • Field courses
  • Computer labs
  • Practical classes
  • Problem-based learning

How you will be assessed

You will receive a copy of our marking criteria which provides guidance on how we will assess your work. Your work will be marked on time and you will receive regular feedback.

Your final degree classification will be based on marks gained in your second and third years of study.

You must pass each year to progress. This typically means that you will need to achieve marks of at least 40% in each module. Full details on our marking criteria and structure will be provided at your induction.

To study abroad as part of your degree, you must meet minimum academic requirements in year one.

Assessment methods

  • Coursework
  • Group project
  • Lab reports
  • Oral exam
  • Poster presentation
  • Research project
  • Written exam

Contact time and study hours

In your first year, you will take 120 credits of modules. As a guide, one credit equals approximately 10 hours of work. You will spend around half of your time in lectures, seminars and practicals. The remaining time will be independent study. Core modules are typically taught by professors or associate professors.

Study abroad

There are a number of options to apply to study abroad during your time at Nottingham. We offer designated support to guide you through the entire process. You can apply to:

  • study at the University of Nottingham Malaysia in your second year for a semester or whole year
  • study in Australia, Canada or the USA. We'll help you apply to spend a semester of your second year at one of our highly ranked international partner universities
  • study in France, Austria or Spain for an additional year between years two and three
  • a wide range of summer schools across a variety of countries

Year in industry

We have excellent links with companies, and can help to find the best placement for you. Often a placement year can help you to secure to a graduate job.

Our students have been on placement with:

  • Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust
  • The Whitley Wildlife Trust
  • British Geological Survey

The industry placement takes place between years two and three of your degree. You can apply during year two of your degree, subject to meeting minimum academic requirements.

Study Abroad and the Year in Industry are subject to students meeting minimum academic requirements. Opportunities may change at any time for a number of reasons, including curriculum developments, changes to arrangements with partner universities, travel restrictions or other circumstances outside of the university’s control. Every effort will be made to update information as quickly as possible should a change occur.


Core modules

Building a Habitable Planet

The unifying theme of this module is biogeochemical cycling - the production, distribution and cycling of materials on the Earth and their availability to, and use by, biological organisms. The module starts by covering the history of the universe, from the big bang to the evolution of the Earth's surface environment. Then you will explore the major global systems and their circulations as they are today - solids, liquids and gases. In the final section, you will examine the major materials - including carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen and metals - and their budgets and cycles. We will also cover the interactions between biological and physical/chemical processes on a global scale. 

Principles of Ecology

Pollinator species are hugely important for natural systems and for managed systems like agriculture, but there is concern that numbers are declining. This module introduces you to the principles of ecology and looks at how organisms have evolved to interact with their environment.

You’ll cover:

  • population and community ecology
  • the various definitions of biodiversity
  • the loss of species and habitats

You’ll have lectures from current researchers in the field and the opportunity to apply your learning in the laboratory and through field visits. 

Academic Skills

This module is compulsory for environmental science, environmental biology and plant science undergraduates. It is spread across the autumn and spring semester of year one. It is taught using a mixture of lectures, laboratory and computer practical sessions, alongside tutorials. The module is structured around the production of a scientific paper. Therefore, the module’s topics include scientific writing, data analysis, data presentation and referencing skills

Environmental Science and Society

This module introduces you to the role and limitations of environmental science within the context practical environmental decision-making. During this module, we will look at how the degradation of our natural environment is creating unprecedented challenges for humans and society around the world. Science has a key role to play in helping us to understand and protect our environment. Public opinion of environmental issues and science is key to this, not least because the public funds 80% of scientific research. In this module, we will look at issues around scientific ethics, trust in science, denial, scepticism and science communication. Environmental problems are now very much part of the political agenda. We will look at the history of the environmental movement, environmental activism and environmental ethics. We will explore how and why we try to protect the environment through policy, legislation, international agreements and economic strategies.

Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour

Starting with Darwin’s theory of evolution, you will learn how natural selection and other evolutionary forces have shaped the ways in which organisms interact with each other and their environment. In addition to lectures, practical classes will give you hands-on experience with a range of ecological and behavioural concepts in the laboratory and the field.

Habitat Management

In this module you will explore a variety of UK habitats and the ecological requirements and adaptations of the species found within them. You will be introduced to methods for wildlife conservation and the sustainable management of wildlife resources . Developing skills in identification and an understanding of the methods used to classify and monitor species and habitats.

Geographical Information Systems for Environmental Monitoring

In this module you will learn how to use a Geographical Information System to visualise and explore environmental data. Using real-world data, you will produce environmental maps using the widely used free open source software QGIS. Accompanying the computer labs, lectures will provide background and context to the mapping task at the centre of the module.

The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on Friday 02 September 2022.

Core modules


You will learn about the forces determining the distribution and abundance of species and be able to use models to predict the dynamics of populations under a range of conditions. You will recognise how interactions between species can drive co-evolutionary processes leading to an understanding of the organisation of natural systems working systematically from populations through to communities, ecosystems and biogeographical scales.

Ecological Surveying

This module will introduce students to a range of skills for environmental monitoring and ecological assessment; students will develop key practical skills and gain valuable experience in planning and conducting fieldwork.

There will be a strong focus on developing practical skills and enhancing employability in the environmental job sector. Topics covered will include Plant identification and NVC - Phase 1 habitat surveys, surveying species, which have specific protections under law – bats and birds and terrestrial invertebrate survey techniques.

Research and Professional Skills

In this module you will develop and consolidate your professional and research abilities as a scientist. You’ll improve your core skills that will enable you carry out scientifically-sound research, including:

  • the scientific method and experimentation
  • measurement techniques
  • literature searches
  • data collection and statistical analysis.

You’ll also cover discipline-specific topics according to your interests in animal, crop or management science. There will be a mix of lectures, workshops and group activity sessions for you to work on your skills.

Climate Change Science

A broad overview of the science behind climate change and its effects is studied on this module. Topics include:

  • historical climate change
  • the principles of climate forcing
  • the role of modelling
  • responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, including impacts on humans
  • the political environment
  • options for climate stabilisation.

Optional modules

Ecosystem Processes

The course will focus on the processes that govern terrestrial ecosystem function. We will identify key ecosystem drivers and processes and explore how these have shaped the biosphere. Students will gain an understanding of the mechanisms that control changes in the physiochemical environment and their impact upon communities. Particular topics will include primary productivity, decomposition, herbivory, biodiversity and human impact on ecosystems. Classes comprise a mix of lectures, laboratory practicals, a computer practical, a seminar and fieldwork

The Urban Environment

The majority of people now live in urban areas and the combined impact of cities worldwide is an important cause of global environmental changes. Urban environments are places of intensive energy and water use and waste generation. Case studies from around the world will illustrate the impact of extreme events such as flooding, drought, and heatwaves. The module will focus on air quality, water and waste management and explore past, present and possible future responses to those challenges including the role of green infrastructure in supporting sustainable living in urban environments.

Evolutionary Biology of Animals

Introduces key evolutionary concepts and their application in the animal kingdom. Areas you will study include the history of evolutionary thinking, natural selection versus the neutral theory, sexual selection and human evolution. 

Forest Ecology and Management

This module will introduce you to some key ecological processes in forest ecosystems and provides an overview of forest biodiversity and its assessment. You will develop practical skills in tree species identification and survey techniques during fieldwork and site visits. We will look at the scale, rates, distribution and causes of deforestation and forest degradation and the implications of this for global and local ecosystem services. We will examine different management objectives including timber production, environmental services, amenity and conservation.

Biological Photography and Imaging I

Through practical sessions, you will learn the techniques of biological image production and manipulation, including the ability to generate biological images of the highest technical quality and scientific value. You will build an understanding of the principles behind photography and how to get the most out of state of the art photographic and imaging equipment.

Managing Tourism and the Environment: Conflict or Consensus?

This module will examine and explore:

  • the interactions between and the management of tourism and the environment from the perspective of key stakeholders including business, government, non-governmental organisations, tourist and local communities
  • the emergence of environmentally concerned consumers and the implications of different environmental paradigms for tourism development
  • debates surrounding the environmental and economic impacts of tourism to highlight the potential for both conflict and consensus
  • the role played by pressure groups in influencing tourism development and the emergence of nature/eco-tourism

Soils are the most complex biomaterial on earth. An understanding of the basic concepts concerning the form and function of soils is important for future management strategies such as mitigating the effects of climate change and providing safe and sustainable food. This module focuses on the important soil properties from physical, chemical and biological perspectives including soil organic matter, soil chemical reactions, soil fauna and flora, and soil-water relations.

Computer Modelling in Science: Introduction
The aim of this module is to introduce the use of computing programming and modelling in the biological and environmental sciences for model simulation and image processing.
Plant Pests and Diseases

Sugarbeet root aphids feed on the sap in the roots, causing damage and production losses. But how does this pest work and what can be done? In this module, you’ll explore how microbes and insects cause disease in plants and the effect of interactions between plants, microbes and insects. Looking globally, you’ll be able to explain the importance and the nature of the organisms that are pests and diseases of plants, including population dynamics and epidemiology. You’ll also assess the main approaches for control and management of pests and diseases, including chemical interventions, resistance breeding in plants and biological control. You’ll have lectures complemented by practical laboratory sessions, videos and demonstrations.

Practical Policy Making

In this module you’ll develop your understanding of how and why policies relating to agriculture, the environment and food are developed, and you will gain a valuable insight into how to influence policy. The module will be delivered via a series of lectures and guest speakers, which from organisations such as: Defra, the National Farmers Union (NFU), agri-businesses within the input supply chain and food retailers.

The Green Planet
This module explores the evolution of key plant systems through deep time, and the significance of this process for understanding modern ecology and food security. You will learn about the challenges that plants faced when moving onto land and evolutionary innovations within the early spermatophytes. You will also gain an understanding of the power of natural selection in producing plant diversity over deep time.
Animal Behaviour and Physiology

A comprehensive introduction to the study of animal behaviour, from the physiological and genetic bases of behaviour to its development through learning and its adaptive significance in the natural environment. Through practical classes, you will learn about the physiological basis of fundamental behaviours. Using examples from across the animal kingdom, you will learn how predictive modelling, experimental and observational approaches integrate to explain how and why animals behave as they do.

The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on

Core modules

Environmental Biology Research Project

You will carry out an experimental or literature based research project. This project is often linked to current research being carried out in the school. Project areas include animal ecology, plant responses to environmental stress and air pollution.

Examples of recent research projects include:

  • a field study of beetles in Central America
  • a laboratory study of the response of wheat roots to saline soils
  • a desk-based study on the potential role of secondary biofuels in the UK.

Optional modules

Conservation Genetics

Consider the genetic effects of reduced population size, especially relating to the conservation of endangered species. You will study topics including genetic drift and inbreeding in depth, from theoretical and practical standpoints. You will spend around one and a half hours per week in lectures studying this module, plus a two and a half hour computer practical.

Arctic Ecology Field Course

The course will focus on the function of arctic ecosystems. We will identify key terrestrial ecosystem drivers and processes in order to gain a broad understanding of arctic areas. During the field course, you will put ecological methodology into practice. Working on projects that analyse landscape patterns and processes in different habitats. The course will also address climate change impacts on arctic ecosystems. You'll develop skills in ecological methodology, experimental design, data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation. You are required to pay a contribution towards the cost of the field course.

Pollution Field Course

This one week field excursion aims to provide you with experience of a range of environmental pollution issues. Issues covered in the excursion include:

  • soil acidification and forest decline/recovery
  • contamination of soils and vegetation due to mining and air pollution
  • biomonitoring using tree rings
  • lignite mining and combustion, past and present
  • particulate and gaseous air pollution

Field activities will be based in Barcelona. A series of field exercises involving sampling and observation will be undertaken, based on the key topics above. These will be followed up by laboratory sessions during which samples collected in the field will be processed and data analysis undertaken. The results will be presented during a seminar session where you will give short summary talks on the work undertaken during and after the field trip.

Students are required to pay a contribution towards the cost of the field course. 

Tropical Ecology and Conservation

This module will introduce students to a range of topics relating to ecology and conservation, with a particular focus on the tropical context. During the course students will:

  • Consider the threats and problems that tropical ecosystems and biodiversity are currently facing, including topics such as the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and exploitation of wildlife.
  • Consider a range of possible approaches for conservation and more sustainable management. These will take into account ecological, socio-political, and economic factors, and will include a wide range of strategies such as habitat management, land-use planning, and policy change.
  • Examine case studies detailing real-life example of problems and solutions, across a variety of tropical contexts.
Biological Photography and Imaging II

Extend and develop your skills of creative and critical biological photography through this advanced module. You will continue to develop the practice and experience gained in Biological Photography and Imaging 1. You are encouraged to demonstrate increasing expertise in selected subject areas and/or specialist photographic techniques such as digital imaging and manipulation (using Photoshop software), digital video photography and editing, ecological and environmental photography, landscapes, macro and long lens photography and specialist lighting. Field and studio work continue to be essential elements of the module. You will have around three hours of lectures per week studying this module.

Evolutionary Ecology

Considers current knowledge of, and research into, the ecological causes and evolutionary processes that govern natural selection, adaptation and microevolution in natural populations. You will examine three approaches to the study of evolutionary ecology: theoretical and optimality models; the comparative method; and direct measurement of natural selection in the wild. You will have two-to three hours of lectures each week in this module.

Applied Bioethics 1: Animals, Biotechnology and Society

Animal-human interactions raise some prominent ethical issues. In this module, you’ll examine the ethical dimensions concerning animal agriculture, modern biotechnologies and research in the biosciences, in relation to both humans and non-human species. You’ll learn about the ethical frameworks used to analyse specific dilemmas raised by the human use of animals. Using specific animal and biotechnology case studies, you’ll interpret the main ethical theories and principles and apply them to the case studies to inform professional decision-making. You’ll have a mix of lectures and seminars to explore these concepts.

Plants and the Light Environment

How does light cause variation in crop yields? In this module, you’ll study the influence of the light environment on the physiology of native and crop species, extending from the cellular to community level. You’ll learn how to differentiate between different light signalling pathways in plants and demonstrate how these pathways function in plants. You’ll be able to explain how light is absorbed by plants to initiate energy transfer systems and to stimulate development and ultimately plant yield. You’ll then be able to apply your knowledge in understanding the causes of variations in crop yields and how these may be used to assist in the search for improved varieties and increased productivity in agricultural systems. You’ll have a mix of lectures, demonstrations and field trips to see what you’ve learnt in practice.

Plants and the Soil Environment

What happens below the ground that affects the water and nutrient uptake by plants? In this module, you’ll examine the acquisition of water and nutrients by plants in both agricultural and natural systems, and how plants interact with the soil environment. You’ll learn about the evolution of root adaptations which enable plants to thrive in environments with limited or excess water and nutrients. In an agricultural setting, you’ll explore how water and nutrient uptake by plants can be used to improve crop productivity and resource management, and use the practical study component to investigate new methods and technologies for below-ground phenotyping of roots. You’ll have a mix of lectures and computer-based practicals to gain a fundamental understanding of how water and nutrients are acquired by plants from the soil environment, and their influence on plant growth and development.


The module will focus on the processes that govern the interplay between the biosphere and geosphere. It will identify key events and processes in geological time which demonstrate the geological consequences of evolution. Students will gain understanding of the mechanisms that control changes in the physiochemical environmental and their impact upon evolution and in turn how life has impacted on the physiochemical environment.

Environmental Biotechnology

In a series of lectures, this module provides training in environmental biotechnology, with particular emphasis on the interaction between microorganisms and the environment. The main topics covered will be wastewater treatment, bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants, microbes as indicators of risk factors in the environment, microbes in agriculture (biocontrol and biofertilisers) and the role of microorganisms in bioenergy production.

Sustainable Soil Management

Soils underpin the sustainability of all terrestrial ecosystems on our planet. Alongside forming the basis of agricultural production soils provide us with a range of vital ecosystem services including storing water and atmospheric greenhouse gases, mediating the impact of pollutants and providing habitats for soil organisms.

Globally soils are under threat from a wide range of processes. This module covers the environmental issues associated with the management of soils. You will explore and debate the sustainable management options open to land managers to prevent degradation and its adverse effects on soil functions and services, while helping to enhance food security.


Consider a range of approaches to conservation biology, such as the measurement and monitoring of biodiversity, and the legal frameworks and management strategies that exist to protect it. You will discuss particular threats to biodiversity, such as habitat loss and invasive species. You will spend around four hours per week in lectures and have four three-hour practicals to study for this module.

Computer Modelling in Science: Applications
Modern biological and environmental science includes the study of complex systems and large data sets, including imaging data. This necessitates the use of computer models and analyses in order to understand these systems. This module contains an introduction to computer programming and modelling techniques that are used in the biological and environmental sciences. Specifically, it contains: (i) Development, simulation and analysis for models in space and time, using the Python language, with applications in the biological and environmental sciences; (ii) Analysis of long term behaviour of models in two or more dimensions; (iii) Methods for fitting models to experimental and environmental data; (iv) analysis of image data. The module will focus on relevant applications in environmental and biological science, e.g. chemical, radioactive and biological pollution, crop development and pathogens and microbiology. The module will use the Python programming language throughout and be assessed by a patchwork assessment consisting of write-ups of assignments from during the semester.
The above is a sample of the typical modules we offer but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year. Modules (including methods of assessment) may change or be updated, or modules may be cancelled, over the duration of the course due to a number of reasons such as curriculum developments or staffing changes. Please refer to the module catalogue for information on available modules. This content was last updated on

Arctic Ecology Field course - Sweden

We'll take you up to the arctic circle to look at the impact of climate change on this pristine arctic ecosystem. This part of the world is predicted to have significantly more warming than other areas.

You'll do ecological surveys to measure the impact on the tundra.

env bio

Fees and funding

UK students

Per year

International students

Per year

*For full details including fees for part-time students and reduced fees during your time studying abroad or on placement (where applicable), see our fees page.

If you are a student from the EU, EEA or Switzerland, you may be asked to complete a fee status questionnaire and your answers will be assessed using guidance issued by the UK Council for International Student Affairs (UKCISA) .

Additional costs

All students will need at least one device to approve security access requests via Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA). We also recommend students have a suitable laptop to work both on and off-campus. For more information, please check the equipment advice.

As a student on this course, you should factor some additional costs into your budget, alongside your tuition fees and living expenses.

There are no additional costs for visits and the non-residential field courses. Students are currently asked for a contribution of £250 towards the cost of the optional residential field course in Sweden. 

You should be able to access most of the books you’ll need through our libraries, though you may wish to purchase your own copies. If you do these would cost around £40.

Due to our commitment to sustainability, we don’t print lecture notes but these are available digitally. You will be given £5 worth of printer credits a year. You are welcome to buy more credits if you need them. It costs 4p to print one black and white page.

If you do a work placement, you need to consider the travel and living costs associated with this.

Personal laptops are not compulsory as we have computer labs that are open 24 hours a day but you may want to consider one if you wish to work at home.

Scholarships and bursaries

Home students*

Over one third of our UK students receive our means-tested core bursary, worth up to £1,000 a year. Full details can be found on our financial support pages.

* A 'home' student is one who meets certain UK residence criteria. These are the same criteria as apply to eligibility for home funding from Student Finance.

International students

We offer a range of international undergraduate scholarships for high-achieving international scholars who can put their Nottingham degree to great use in their careers.

International scholarships


You could work for conservation organisations, environmental consultancies, alternative energy companies, local authorities and government agencies.

Roles include:

  • environmental education officers
  • engineering consultants
  • marine biologists
  • nature conservation officers
  • hydrology, recycling and sustainability officers

These degrees can also lead into roles in teaching, scientific journalism or further research degrees.

Average starting salary and career progression

85.3% of undergraduates from the School of Biosciences secured employment or further study within 15 months of graduation. The average annual salary for these graduates was £24,418.*

*Data from UoN graduates, 2017-2019. HESA Graduate Outcomes. Sample sizes vary.

Studying for a degree at the University of Nottingham will provide you with the type of skills and experiences that will prove invaluable in any career, whichever direction you decide to take.

Throughout your time with us, our Careers and Employability Service can work with you to improve your employability skills even further; assisting with job or course applications, searching for appropriate work experience placements and hosting events to bring you closer to a wide range of prospective employers.

Have a look at our careers page for an overview of all the employability support and opportunities that we provide to current students.

The University of Nottingham is consistently named as one of the most targeted universities by Britain’s leading graduate employers (Ranked in the top ten in The Graduate Market in 2013-2020, High Fliers Research).

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" Everyone tells you that doing a placement will give you invaluable experience in your industry. Whilst that is true, your year out can be so much more. I expanded my experience within research science in one of the coolest workplaces ever at Paignton Zoo, then after work I was at the beach exploring with my workmates. It was such a great lifestyle, and I came back with a much better idea of what I wanted as a graduate. "

Related courses

Important information

This online prospectus has been drafted in advance of the academic year to which it applies. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information is accurate at the time of publishing, but changes (for example to course content) are likely to occur given the interval between publishing and commencement of the course. It is therefore very important to check this website for any updates before you apply for the course where there has been an interval between you reading this website and applying.