Syrians return to Kobani after Kurds win back border town
Refugees from Kobani gather at a Turkish border crossing waiting to return home after Kurdish militia regained control of the strategic border town. Nathan Frandino reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and
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Jeff Gold Inaugural Lecture - The Leader's Conundrum or 'You cannot lift yourself up by your own shi
The aim of the lecture will be to do demonstrate the need to challenge continuing traditional images of leaders, often depicted at the apex of things, on top of a hill or at the centre of a complex web of activity. I will argue that those nominated as leaders MUST become aware of what I will call the leader's conundrum and complement their inspiration with 99 x perspiration. To appreciate this call, attendees to the lecture as respectfully asked to do the following just before the lecture: a.
Author(s): Jeff Gold,Leeds Metropolitan University

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Personality Politics: How Persona Plays into our Political Thinking
Panel Discussion Is perception reality in politics? Wouldn’t it be refreshing if politics were about substance—about ideas and facts and not about appeals to emotion and attacks on character? In recent years, there has been a rise in polarization across the citizenry. The fragmented media environment has led to a change in campaign strategies whereby candidates microtarget citizens with much greater precision than ever before. Unless we are part of a targeted group, we seldom know what stra
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Virtual Maths, Calculating the Volume of a Brick
How to calculate the volume of a brick, guide (pdf)
Author(s): Leeds Metropolitan University

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Faces of Del Mar College, Tiffany Rivera
One day, Tiffany Rivera had an idea. Del Mar College helped turn that idea into a reality.
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The Center for Nutrient Solutions (Trailer)
The Center for Nutrient Solutions (CNS) is one of four centers funded under the EPA STAR program establishing “national centers for innovative and sustainable water research, incorporating a systems view of nutrient management. Institutions collaborating with Penn State are the University of Maryland Eastern Shore and the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The CNS at Penn State is establishing an innovative and integrative process to identify optimal locations for nutrient interventions (ta
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Donetsk orphanage struggles to shelter children from war
As a fragile Ukraine ceasefire comes under renewed strain, an orphanage in rebel-held Donetsk struggles to shield its young charges from the year-long conflict. Mana Rabiee reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, nation
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In-flight look at total solar eclipse
A chartered Russian plane flies over the Arctic to give passengers a rare view of the total solar eclipse above the clouds. Gavino Garay reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and international news. For over
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Islamic State video purports to show Kurdish peshmerga beheadings
Islamic State has published a video purporting to show the beheadings of three Kurdish peshmerga fighters in northern Iraq. Mana Rabiee reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and international news. For over
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Bottled Water
Have you ever wondered where bottled water comes from and what impact this has on the environment? This informative, animated video looks at the complete process of producing bottled water and strives to answer the question, 'Bottled water - who needs it?' Highlighting the effects this has on the carbon footprint, we learn how bottled water is disseminated worldwide. This material forms part of the course U116 Environment: journeys through a changing world.Author(s): The iTunes U team

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7 Course questions

Now you have completed this course, try the following questions to test your understanding of this material.

Question 19

Like the Variscan Orogenic Belt, the Caledonian includes large granitic intrusions. Using
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10.2 The relationship between loudness and intensity

The loudness of an auditory stimulus is a psychological, not physical attribute of the stimulus. The physical attribute of sound that is most closely correlated with loudness is intensity. So loudness is the listener's subjective description of the intensity of the stimulus. As you know, we are not equally sensitive to sounds of all frequencies so perceived loudness of a tone in fact depends on frequency as well as intensity. Two sounds can have the same physical sound pressure levels but if
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8.1 Introduction

We have learned so far that physical energy from the environment is transduced into electrochemical messages that affect the nervous system and give rise to psychological experiences, that is, produce sensations and perceptions. Sensation refers to the initial process of detecting and encoding environmental energy. The first step in sensing the world is performed by receptor cells, which in the case of hearing are the hair cells in the cochlea. Perception on the other hand, generally refers t
Author(s): The Open University

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1.1 What is genetic testing?

When most people encounter genetic testing today, it is usually in a medical context. We may be referred by our GPs to a regional genetics unit, or we may approach our doctors, asking for genetic tests because we suspect something about our family history. In this course we look at the issues and problems facing individuals and families when confronted with genetic testing.

The technologies that make genetic testing possible range from chemical tests for gene products in the bloo
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2.4 Current UK provision

One way of describing the organizational shift that the advent of predictive medicine would demand is to suggest that genetics would become a general, rather than a specialist service. But it is much easier to say that than to explain how it will happen. For all the publicity about genes, genomes and genetic information, medical genetics is a very small part of current health services.

In the UK, an indication that a patient or a family has a genetic problem will lead to a referral to a
Author(s): The Open University

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2.3 Scaling up

They may look at dozens of alleles, and involve thousands of people, but existing screening programmes have been concerned with individual genes. But the technologies now being developed will soon permit the recording of hundreds of genes at a time. So-called gene chips combine the skills of microchip designers with DNA sequence information to offer rapid, easy-to-read results for an individual covering hundreds of genetic variants. A gene chip is a thin slice of glass about the
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2.2.4 Longer-term considerations

Something else to ponder is the effect that screening might have on the longer-term incidence of disease and (not the same thing) on the incidence of gene variants linked to disease. Sometimes, the impact on a disease can be dramatic. Take thalassaemia, a haemoglobin disorder similar to sickle cell disease, in which premature destruction of haemoglobin-containing red blood cells leads to anaemia. It is relatively common in some Mediterranean countries. Like sickle cell disease, it is understo
Author(s): The Open University

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2.2.3 Cystic fibrosis

A different model for the genetic tests of the future is screening for cystic fibrosis (CF). This is a DNA-based test, which became possible after the gene involved in CF was identified in 1989. CF is a recessive disease, and it should be easy to test to see if prospective parents carry a mutated allele. A simple mouthwash yields enough cells for DNA extraction. If both partners are carriers, they can consider further counselling before conception, and/or pre-natal testing of any potentially
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2.2.1 Phenylketonuria

The classic example of population screening is testing new-born babies for phenylketonuria (PKU). Individuals with PKU fail to make a protein, a certain enzyme, and develop mental retardation. The absence of the enzyme results in both an accumulation of phenylalanine, which causes the mental retardation, and a deficiency of tyrosine in the body, as shown in Author(s): The Open University

2.2 Population screening for genetic disease: the precedents

Knowing about particular genes, or their effects, also permits screening – the search in a population for persons with certain genotypes that are associated with a particular disease. Thus the test may be offered to one and all. Until now, screening programmes have focused on one gene at a time, or one disease at a time, in cases where a mutated gene poses serious health problems and something can be done for those who are found to carry the mutation. What that something is varies with the
Author(s): The Open University

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