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Figures

Figure 1 Science Photo Library;

Figure 8a This photograph has been provided by Railway Technical Research Institute in Japan;

Figure 22 Proceedings of the Royal Society A248 464. The Royal Society;

F
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2.1 Introduction

The most basic requirement of a PhD thesis is high-quality research. This outcome requires obvious intellectual skills related to knowledge and intelligence, but also less obvious skills such as planning and time management. A PhD project is a multi-year research programme, and the abilities to plan effectively, to coordinate activities and to manage your time and that of others are extremely important. The aim of this unit is to help you understand the planning and management skills that are
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1.9 Summary and conclusion: ‘take-away messages’

It helps to understand the PhD in context: the modern PhD is typically a three-year research training providing evidence of the ability to conduct and bring to fruition an independent programme of research. It requires rigour and an ability to enter the discourse, but its scope is limited and it does not require perfection. Models of study and models of dissertations vary for different universities, disciplines, and topics. The key is to understand what is appropriate for your particular prog
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1.8 The OU requirements

The criteria for an OU PhD (as stated in the Guidelines on Research Degree Examinations for Heads of Disciplines, Supervisors and Examination Panels, EX 10, revised January 1998) are that:

The thesis must be of good presentation style and show evidence of being a significant contribution knowledge and of the student's capacity to pursue further research without supervision. The thesis must contain
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1.5.2 Validation and ‘so what’

It's usually not enough to find something; initial conclusions usually require a validation step, a chance to expose them to falsification or corroboration. For example, the conventional validation step for an implementation is an evaluation. The conventional validation step for a novel solution is a demonstration of concept, or a performance test.

Good dissertations are distinguished by ‘asking the next question’, i.e. by not being satisfied with the first result, but invest
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5.2 Neural ageing: article 2

In the article presented here by Esteban (2004) entitled ‘Living with the enemy: a physiological role for theβ-amyloid peptide’, Trends in Neurosciences, 27, pp. 1–3, the author introduces us to a very important molecule implicated in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. However, the β-am
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5.2.2 Calorie restriction

Since the publication of Osborne, Mendel and Ferry's paper (Science, 1917, Vol 45, pp. 294–5) calorie restriction has been the most reliable method of extending the lifespan of laboratory animals. These results have been confirmed by many researchers and have been extended to a variety of verteb
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