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4.4 Where does gender come from?

Activity 15

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4.3 Reflecting on gender and identity

Activity 14

0 hours 20 minutes

3.12 Services for inter-ethnic communications

Another way in which services have attempted to respond to issues of inter-ethnic communication is the provision of services for people whose first language is not English. You may remember this appeared to be the key ‘problem’ in the case study which launched the discussion of ‘difference’ in Section 1. As noted there, poor communication in health services can have serious consequences, leading to misdiagnosis, ineffective interventions and, in extreme circumstances, preventable deat
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3.1 ‘Race’, ethnicity and communication

As noted in the Introduction, much of the debate about difference and diversity in health and social care has focused on issues of ‘race’ and ethnicity. It is perhaps the area that first comes to mind when there is discussion about issues of communication and difference in care services, but it is also an area where the arguments are most complex and contentious.

As you saw in Section 1, ‘racial’ or ethnic diversity has often been constructed as a ‘problem’ for health and so
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1.9 Conclusion

In this course you have seen the importance of the shared meanings that we construct together – how they enable us to act collectively within social situations. In particular, you have explored Goffman’s ideas about how those meanings are constructed through:

  • the way we present ourselves within social situations

  • the way we respond to other people’s presentation of themselves and help to shore up their performances.


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5 Audio clip 4: Sarah Fletcher

Figure 3: Sarah Fletcher

At the time of the int
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5.1 Introduction

Elite athletes are aware of the importance of heart performance and blood flow and many have specific training programmes to increase the strength and efficiency of the heart. This is not, however, just something that impacts on elite athletes. Even those of us engaged in sport at an amateur level or just for recreation will have experienced the effect of sport on the heart. After intense physical activity our heart pounds and possibly our head pounds too from the blood that is being pumped t
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2.2 The body as a machine

This is a useful way of thinking if we want to understand some basic aspects of how the body works in its relation to sport. We can think of the body as a device that operates on simple mechanical principles, that needs to be fuelled and that uses up this fuel as it is driven harder.

Figure 1
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Health and Social Care. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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1 Fuel poverty

The audio clips in this course feature interviews about fuel poverty in Scotland.

Read through the information about each of the participants, and then listen to the clips in Section 3. As you read, and while you listen, make a note of:

  • the definition of fuel poverty;

  • the main causes of fuel poverty;

  • the other issues or problems related to, or caused by, fuel poverty;

  • ways of tackling the proble
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6.2 Concepts of Illness

Sontag (1979) wrote about the metaphors we use to describe illness. Metaphors are ways of speaking about something as if it were something else which is imaginatively but not literally applicable, for instance calling a new moon a sickle. Sontag was mainly concerned with life-threatening illnesses such as cancer and AIDS, and how the metaphors we use can serve to stigmatise the sufferers, for instance referring to AIDS as a gay plague. But people use metaphors to explain illness to themselves
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3 Frequency, intensity, time and type (FITT)

In the previous section the principles of training were considered. When designing an exercise session or programme there are four factors that can be manipulated to adjust the training load – frequency (how often), intensity (how hard), time (how long) and type (what mode), which are commonly referred to by the acronym ‘FITT’.


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1.6 Models of health care delivery: the biomedical model

Figure 1
Sally and Richard Greenhill ©
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5.1 Energy services

Except in the form of food, no one needs or wants energy as such. That is to say, no one wants to eat coal or uranium, drink oil, breathe natural gas or be directly connected to an electricity supply. What people want is energy services – those services which energy uniquely can provide. Principally, these are: heat, for warming rooms, for washing and for processing materials; lighting, both interior and exterior; motive power, for a myriad of uses from pumping fluids to lifti
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3.6 Summary

This section has described how fossil fuels provide the majority of the world's energy requirements, with bioenergy, nuclear energy and hydropower also making major contributions. The other 'renewable' energy sources currently supply only a small fraction of world demand, although the contribution of these 'renewables' seems likely to grow rapidly in coming decades, as we shall see in the following section.


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3.5 Hydroelectricity

Another energy source that has been harnessed by humanity for many centuries is the power of flowing water, which has been used for milling corn, pumping and driving machinery. During the twentieth century, its main use has been in the generation of hydroelectricity, and hydropower has grown to become one of the world's principal electricity sources. It currently provides some 2.3 per cent of world primary energy. However, the relative contribution of hydroelectric power (and of other electri
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2.1 What is energy?

'Energy is Eternal Delight'

William Blake, 1757–1827 (1994)

What do we mean by 'energy'? What does the concept of 'sustainability' entail? And what, for that matter, do we mean by the 'future' in this context?

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6.3 Sustainable development

The third approach to balancing human needs with environmental protection is to try to come to grips with what we mean by sustainability.

The most widely quoted definition of sustainable development is the one used by Gro Harlem Brundtland in the highly influential book Our Common Future (Brundtland, 1987):

'Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present withou
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Structural devices
Microelectronics has enabled designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component they create. This free course, Structural devices, will illustrate how such control is achieved and the various methods that can be applied in differing circumstances. First published on Tue, 07 May 2019 as
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Introduction

In this course we examine one factor that very often seems to be found skulking around close to problems and solutions: temperature.

Almost whatever we do, wherever we are, temperature changes. Stay in the same spot and you'll find daytime and night-time temperatures can be markedly different. You may even find significant changes in temperature during the day. When moving you can encounter more rapid variations. For example, an aircraft might leave a tropical runway where the air tempe
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