Some students contend with physical difficulties in reading. Here is one:

And here is another being offered advice by a friend:

Author(s): The Open University

In real experiments, as opposed to hypothetical ones, it is very rare that scientists make a sufficiently large number of measurements to obtain a smooth continuous distribution like that shown in Figure 7d. However, it is often convenient to assume a particular mathematical form for typically distributed measurements, and the form that is usually
Author(s): The Open University

Table 3 shows all the values for each step in the process of calculating a standard deviation, so that you can see what the operations encapsulated by Equation 7 actually entail, but you will probably be relieved to hear that it is not usually necessary to carry out such detailed calculations. Scientific and graphics calculators (or computer sp
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Scientists collect many different types of information, but sets of data may be very loosely classified into two different types. In the first type, so-called â€˜repeated measurementâ€™, an individual quantity is measured a number of times. An astronomer wanting to determine the light output of a star would take many measurements on a number of different nights to even out the effects of the various possible fluctuations in the atmosphere that are a cause of stars â€˜twinklingâ€™. In the seco
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The probabilities described in Section 2.3 and Section 2.4 related to the outcomes of a single process, such as repeatedly tossing one coin. Now suppose you were to toss three separate coins simultaneously. What is the prob
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Scientists are always trying to get better and more reliable data. One way of getting a more precise measurement might be to switch to an instrument with a more finely divided scale. Figure 4 shows parts of two thermometers placed side by side to record the air temperature in a room.

Author(s): The Open University

You are now going to use the four operation keys (on the bottom right-hand side of the TI-84 keyboard): , Author(s): The Open University

## Example 3

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Many people's ideas about what mathematics actually is are based upon their early experiences at school. The first two activities aim to help you recall formative experiences from childhood.

## Activity 1 Carl Jung's school days

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In this section we have seen that the complex number system is the set RÂ Ã—Â R together with the operationsÂ +Â andÂ Ã—Â defined by

From this, one can justify the performance of ordinary algebraic operations on expressions of the form aÂ +Â ib
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Scientific notation can be very useful when estimating the answers to calculations involving very large and/or small decimal numbers.

## Example 9

A lottery winner won Â£7851 000. He put the money straight into a deposit account which earns 7.5% interest per annum (i.e. each year). If he wanted to
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1 The new home owners from Example 4 above want to price grass seed, as well as the turf (transport only). The best buy seems to be loose seed, which says â€˜1 kilo covers 80 m2â€™. They wonder what length the side of an 80 m2
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1 Evaluate the following:

• (a) 62

• (b) 0.52

• (c) 1.52

## Answer<Author(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Up to now only those points with positive or zero coordinates have been considered. But the system can be made to cope with points involving negative coordinates, such as (âˆ’2, 3) or (âˆ’2, âˆ’3). Just as a number line can be extended to deal with negative numbers, the x-axis and y-axis can be extended to deal with negative coordinates.

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1 The frequency diagram below shows the numbers of people in different age groups in a sample of the UK population.

• (a) What is the width of each age group?

• (b) Which age group conta
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This unit shows how partial differential equations can be used to model phenomena such as waves and heat transfer. The prerequisite requirements to gain full advantage from this unit are an understanding of ordinary differential equations and basic familiarity with partial differential equations.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Mathematical methods and models (MST209
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Keywords are significant words which define the subject you are looking for. The importance of keywords is illustrated by the fact that there is a whole industry around providing advice to companies on how to select keywords for their websites that are likely to make it to the top of results lists generated by search engines. We often choose keywords as part of an iterative process; usually if we don't hit on the right search terms straight off, most of us tweak them as we go along based on t
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There is a variety of new approaches or terms that are interlinked, and have been prominent throughout this book. All of them have played a part in this book's journey through the scientific, political, philosophical and social implications of climate change.

Governance of climate change is about: decision making under uncertainty; understanding and representing vulnerability even when vulnerabilities are difficult to assess or unknowable; and making every aspect of human
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The Sun is the ultimate source of energy for the Earth's climate. A planet such as the Earth will have a stable temperature as long as there is a balance between the rate at which energy comes in from the Sun and the rate at which it is returned to space by the planet. If the two rates fail to match, the planet will either warm up or cool down until a balance is restored. Thus, it is appropriate to begin with a review of this global balancing act. The heart of the matter is that the energy fl
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By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• understand why systems thinking might be useful and know something about how it can be applied in the context of environmental responsibility;

• describe the significance of environmental pragmatism and cognitive justice as tools for supporting environmental policy and action.

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