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3.5.5 Biological indicators

A great many biological species and individuals occur in normal streams. These often differ markedly in their sensitivity to environmental factors, and likewise the tolerances of various species to different types of pollution vary considerably. The major groups of organisms that have been used as indicators of environmental pollution include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, higher plants, macroinvertebrates and fish. The benthic 'bottom living' macroinvertebrates are particularly suitable a
Author(s): The Open University

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2.7 Infiltration

Entry of precipitation through the soil surface and on downwards, by gravity, is known as infiltration. The rate at which this process can take place is governed by the permeability (a measure of the ease with which water can flow through the subsurface layer) and by the existing degree of saturation of the soil. Infiltration can be impeded by outcropping impermeable rocks or by paved areas, and also by the presence of finegrained soils with a low permeability (such as clay). At certain times
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3.4.5 Fretting fatigue

An additional possibility was considered. It was known that there was significant movement of the bridge during passage of traffic, because users had noticed it many times when crossing. The joints would thus have been subjected to rotary motion around the pin in order to accommodate such vibrations. Could these have caused fatigue crack growth at the bearing surfaces?

Contact between a circular and a flat plate creates so-called Hertzian stresses at the contact zone: compressive at the
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An introduction to material culture
This free course, An introduction to material culture, introduces the study of material culture. It asks why we should study things and outlines some basic approaches to studying objects. Dr Rodney Harrison.
First published on Mon, 11 Jan 2016 as Author(s):
Dr Rodney Harrison

2.1 The bankrupt monarchy

The immediate cause of the Revolution was that the French monarchy faced imminent bankruptcy. (This was partly because of the enormous sums it had spent assisting the American Revolution between 1778 and 1781 in order to discomfort the traditional enemy, Britain.) Neither nobility nor clergy paid direct tax. Without the consent of the established orders of society to a reorganization of the tax burden so as to restore its finances, the government could no longer function. Successive ministers
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying the arts and humanities. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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Leadership: external context and culture
Through studying this free course, Leadership: external context and culture, you will develop your understanding of the impact of external context and culture on the practice of leadership. The course begins by exploring the nature ‘societal culture’, identifying how culture, at a number of levels, impacts on leadership. We then explore how the external context within which an organisation operates impacts on the factors that leaders need to take account of and consequently the exercise of l
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Continuity and learning
This free course, Continuity and learning, has a practical and professional development focus. You will explore interactive dimensions of workplace learning: how people and workplace cultures create formal, informal, planned and unplanned opportunities to learn. You will read about 'biographical learning' research, where adults develop narratives to better understand key points of their learning lives. You will plan and carry out a brief, informal interview with a colleague, and your colleague w
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

2 Reflection on mathematics

Mathematics is a subject about which people have strong views, and these can be negative, positive, or a combination of the two. Our own experience, as tutors and students of mathematics, is that mathematics is often seen by others as something that ‘isn't for me’, and one where beliefs and feelings, especially worry and even fear, can be strong, as a result of previous unhappy experiences. We have written this section to help you to look at your mathematical background, so that you can u
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1 Your worries and concerns with charts, graphs and tables

Do you sometimes feel that you do not fully understand the way that numbers are presented in course materials, newspaper articles and other published material?

What do you consider are your main worries and concerns about your ability to understand and interpret graphs, charts and tables?

Spend a few minutes writing these down before you read on.

One student has said:

I am never quite sure that I
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The matter of being: knowing bodies and 'mental' health
This UBVO seminar was given by Grace Lucas (Centre for Maternal and Child Health, London University) in May 2018
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What Happens If U.S. Supreme Court Decisions End In A Tie?
(03:54)
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Time-lapse movie of a Föhn wave
Time lapsed photography of a Fohn Wave. A Fohn Wave is a cloud form created by atmospheric standing waves. These waves are created as stable air flows over a mountain range, and can either form above or in the lee of the range. As an air mass travels through the wave, it undergoes repeated uplift and descent. This video has no sound.  Run time 01:38.
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Curious George Helps to Teach about Backyard Bugs
The children head to the back yard in search of bugs.  They turn over rocks and find a centipede, slug, and pill bug. By looking at the critters, they learn how they live and what they do.
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Education Quiz
Think you know what is going on in schools across the country? NCES conducts surveys with schools, organizations and individuals all over the United States. After collecting the information we publish the results. Data collections are done by mail, phone, and via the Web. The questions below come from many NCES surveys. Read the questions, select your answer, and click on the "Evaluate Answers" button at the end to see your score! To start over, select the "Choose Again" button (at the end). The
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Fact Families
Students learn to write fact family problems. Fact families all use the same number.  Using a whole, part, part mat, students use cube trains to write two different addition problems using the same numbers- 2, 8 and 10 (2+8=10, 8+2=10).  For the subtraction problems, students use the same cube trains but start with the whole (10) and then break it down into the two parts (2, 8).  Write the subtraction sentences with the same numbers- 2, 8 and 10 (10-8=2, 10-2=8).   

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • discuss processes upon and within, and internal structure of, differentiated icy bodies (primarily large satellites) in comparison with the terrestrial planets

  • describe the conditions that may be required to originate and foster life in an icy body and discuss the likelihood of their having occurred

  • recognise the moral and ethical issues of landing spacecraft on potential life-bearing worlds and app
    Author(s): The Open University

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Tracking Sunspots
You are about ready to start observing and tracking sunspots across the Sun using real images. You can then use this information to determine the rate of the Sun’s rotation.
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East Side Public Square, Jacksonville, Alabama
This image is a black and white photograph of the east side of the public square in Jacksonville, Ala.
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This image is the property of the Auburn University Libraries and is intended for non-commercial use. Users of the image are asked to acknowledge the Auburn University Libraries. For information about

Foy Student Union Building, Auburn University 1
This image is a color aerial photograph of Foy Student Union, Auburn University, Auburn, Ala., named for former Auburn University Dean of Students James Foy. Postcard text: (back) Auburn Union, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Provides offices, meeting rooms, an auditorium, recreation areas and a cafeteria for students and faculty.
Author(s): Auburn University Photographic Services

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This image is the property of the Auburn University Libraries and is intended for non-commercial use. Users of the image are asked to acknowledge the Auburn University Libraries. For information about

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