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2.4 Auction sites

These are sites on the web which run conventional auctions. There are two types of auction: those that are carried out in real time, where participants log in to an auction site using a browser at a specified time and bid for an article until the highest price is reached and no other bids are forthcoming. The other type of site – and the most common – is where an item is offered for sale and a date advertised after which no more bids are accepted. Such sites make a profit from two sources
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2.3 Procurement

The term procurement is used to describe the purchase of goods and services which are not directly used in the main business of a company. For example, a car manufacturer will procure stationery for its employees or procure training courses for them to attend in order to improve their skills.

A typical conventional procurement process consists of a number of steps:

  • the person making the procurement expresses their need by typing in
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Exploring children's difficulties with language and literacy
What happens if children aren’t making progress with language and literacy, and what sort of learning impairments might be the cause? How can the study of children’s thinking help us to understand these learning difficulties? This album offers insights into some of the problems faced by children with the developmental disorders dyslexia, poor comprehension and specific language impairment. In the main audio tracks, educators, therapists and researchers explore why children might have languag
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Youth work: Introducing policy
In this free course, Youth work: Introducing policy, we will look at the meaning of policy, how it works as a mechanism for persuading people to behave in particular ways, its role in shaping our understandings of young people, and the role practitioners can play in mediating and influencing policy. First published on T
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Key skill assessment: Improving your own learning and performance
Learning new skills is what makes us human but can we improve how we go about learning new things in new situations? Learning how to learn can help you to understand what works for you and what doesn't when you set out to learn new skills, either for work, your education, training or everyday life. In this free course, Key skill assessment: Improving your own learning and performance, you will learn to recognise, use and adapt your skills confidently and effectively in different situations and
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How to be a critical reader
In this free course you will focus on how to be a critical reader. Reading critically is an essential skill at university. It means being aware of your own purposes and opinions as you read and being able to recognise the writer's purposes and opinions in their writing. First published on Mon, 14 Mar 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Using film music in the classroom
There are many approaches to using film music in the classroom including: a focus on pupil experience; a focus on the structure of composition; a focus on the relationship between music and image. This free course, Using film music in the classroom, explores them all. First published on Tue, 29 Mar 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Revision and examinations
Do you get stressed at the thought of an examination? Does the idea of revision fill you with dread? This free course, Revision and examinations, will provide a host of tips to help you improve your revision and examination techniques and enable you to manage your time effectively by creating a timetable for your revision. First published on Fri, 01 Apr 2016 as
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Digital literacy: succeeding in a digital world
This free course, Digital literacy: succeeding in a digital world, will develop your confidence and skills for life online, whether study, work or everyday life. It explores a range of digital skills and practices, including digital identity, digital well-being, staying safe and legal, finding and using information and online tools, and dealing with information overload. The importance is emphasised throughout of developing a critical approach to life online, whether consuming or creating inform
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Children’s perspectives on play
In this free course, Children's perspectives on play, you are asked to put yourself in the place of young children and to think about their view of play and their reasons for playing. When children have personal freedom to choose and make decisions about what and who they want to play with, as well as where they want to play, they are highly self-motivated and active in their engagements with everything around them. In this course you will think about how you listen to children’s perspectives,
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This free course, Exploring educational leadership, provides an overview of the field of educational leadership and management. You will explore: the relationships between management and leadership; the scope of the field; different world views that underpin educational leadership research and practice; and some key concepts such as agency, power and authority and context. You will consider some differences between concepts, models and theories and be introduced to some questions that will help
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3.6.2 Making learning posters

You may find that, rather than reducing notes to small summary cards, you prefer to produce large posters detailing key points on particular topics. Use pattern, colour, diagrams and drawings in your posters, and display them in parts of your home where you might have an opportunity to gaze at them for some time and absorb the information. One student we know put them around the bathroom! If you have a strong visual memory, then lively posters really help the remembering process.


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3.6.1 Making summary sheets or cards

Andrew Northedge, in The Good Study Guide uses a diagram to illustrate this (reproduced as Figure 4). He notes that:

To boil the course down in this way, so as to extract its concentrated essences, is extremely valuable because it converts the broad themes and the detailed discussions of the course
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5.1.5 Is there an alternative school of thought?

I guessed that plenty of economists would disagree with Layard's point of view, if he is right that they have not used measures of happiness and have treated rises in real incomes as an unquestioned ‘good thing’. If I were studying this topic seriously, I would search for an article which tackled Layard's arguments from another perspective. When you encounter new ideas, it is useful to get more that one perspective on them, so that you can weigh one against the other.


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5.1.1 How much trust can I put in this text?

You would generally assume that any set texts for a are trustworthy. But when you find a text through your own research you need to run a few checks to assess the soundness of its content.

Who is the publisher?

If an article is from an academic journal, you can assume that its quality has been vetted by the journal's editors. Also if a book is published by a major academic publishing house, you would expect it to be ‘respectable’. And if it's a book from an academic ser
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6.2.3 Precise reference to ‘linear’ texts

You may find it more difficult to provide evidence from texts in which sounds, words or images follow on from one another over time (such as music and videos, plays and novels). Music is perhaps particularly hard to pin down. Sounds weave in and out of each other so that at first you may experience the music as seamless. But there are different ‘movements’ or ‘passages’ in music; moments at which a ‘melody’ is first introduced and later passages when it is repeated, for example. Y
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5.2 The value of the text

We now turn to a critical assessment of the poem as a poem; the question is, is it a ‘good’ poem? To that we should add ‘of its kind’. As we saw, we must judge it as a lyric poem – it would be inappropriate to think of it in the same terms as, say, an epic, because the conventions that govern the epic's form (its subject matter, purposes and formal elements) are very different. It is always important to understand what kind of text you are dealing with no
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Local colleges and schools

The local newspaper or your local library are your sources of reference here. Nowadays, most schools and colleges have evening or daytime courses that are open to adult learners. Many of them will have an advice point, so that you can telephone or drop in to discuss what you are looking for. Many will have an open learning centre where self-assessment tests and open learning materials are available.


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5.2.1 Discrete variables

The charts about different modes of transport and that on attendance figures at a range of cultural events all use what might be called ‘word categories’. Each category (e.g. bus, rail, cycle, and walk) is quite distinct from any other in the set of categories. Such distinct categories are known in mathematics as ‘discrete variables’.

Word categories are not the only type of variable that is discrete; numbers can also be discrete. For example, at the beginning of this section, w
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4.1.3 How do I draw a line graph?

The process is as the steps below outline.

  1. Collect the data.

    In other words, decide on the data that you wish to represent and collect it in a format that shows one value being compared with another.

  2. Decide on a clear title.

    You may be able to use the heading of a table from which you are getting data. Alternatively, you may need to define the title yourself.

  3. Decide on the values that you wish to show on
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