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Care relationships
To set up a care relationship that works well is a delicate matter, whether you are at the giving or the receiving end. In this free course, Care relationships, you will explore the very varied meanings of care relationships and how these meanings arise. Millions of care relationships are going on as you read this, and each carries its own particular meanings for those involved. But where have all those people picked up their ideas of how to relate to each other? How does any of us know where to
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References

Bem, S.L. (1989) ‘Genital knowledge and gender constancy in pre-school children’, Child Development, vol.60, pp. 649–62.
Beresford, P. and Croft, S. (1995) ‘It's our problem too! Challenging the exclusion of poor people form poverty discourse’, Critical Social Policy, 44–5, pp. 75–95.
Dean, H. (1992) ‘Poverty discourses and the disempowerment of t
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2.1 Photographs as documentary evidence

As the discussion of context makes clear, we can begin to ask many questions about the role that images may play in the social sciences. Photographs are documents and like other documentary records they are a physical trace of an actual event. However, as with all documentary evidence, their meaning is not fixed. Other examples of documents used by the social sciences can demonstrate this point.

Documentary evidence can come from official records such as a marriage certificate, a census
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Acknowledgements

The material below is contained in chapter 2 of Economics and Economic Change Microeconomics (2006) (eds) Graham Dawson, Maureen Mackintosh and Paul Anand which is published by Pearson Education Limited in association with The Open University. Copyright © The Open University

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary, used under licence and not subject to Creative Commons Licence (see Author(s): The Open University

5.1 Ideology: a contested concept

Propagators of ideologies use images and symbols to get people to believe and act in certain ways. Nationalism as a political ideology uses the idea of ‘nation’ to achieve political goals, and may be the most potent ideology in existence. It is worth reflecting for a moment on what kind of ideology it is. And it is worth reminding ourselves that ideology is a contested concept; a term that can mean different things. Marx and Engels subscribed to the notion of ideology as a set of ideas th
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Introduction to computational thinking
You will learn about algorithms and abstraction in this free course, Introduction to computational thinking, and encounter some applications of computational thinking in various disciplines, ranging from biology and physics to economics and sport science. First published on Fri, 08 Apr 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Machines, minds and computers
Computers are becoming smarter and may soon become intelligent. This free course, Machines, minds and computers, looks at what intelligence is, how computers may become so, and whether they ever will really be intelligent. It is aimed at people interested in understanding what intelligence and thinking really are, and who want to understand the underpinnings of our ideas about them. Author(s): Creator not set

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The digital scholar
Digital scholarship is a shorthand for the intersection of three technology related developments: digital content, networked distribution and open practices. It is when digital, networked and open intersect that transformational practice occurs. In this free course, The digital scholar, you will explore the impact of digital technologies on scholarly practice. First
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Introduction

People have always communicated with each other – initially by face-to-face communication through gestures and sounds, then over a distance through written messages and signals in the form of fires, lights or flags. Technology, for instance in the form of electrical signals, has reduced many of the limitations of distance. Communication networks have become very important, and modern society depends on them for the smooth operation of economic and social activities. In this unit we regard a
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Introduction

There is more to computers and processors than simply PCs. In fact computers are ubiquitous in everyday life. This unit challenges how we view computers through the examples of processors in kitchen scales and digital cameras, as well as a work of art that, at heart, is a computer.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 2 study in Author(s): The Open University

Digital forensics
Digital evidence features in just about every part of our personal and business lives. Legal and business decisions hinge on having timely data about what people have actually done. This free course, Digital forensics, is an introduction to computer forensics and investigation, and provides a taster in understanding how to conduct investigations to correctly gather, analyse and present digital evidence to both business and legal audiences. It also outlines the tools to locate and analyse digital
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2.2 Characters

Characters are another fundamental form of data. Computers store characters as integers, and system hardware and software translate these integer codes so that monitors and printers can display them.

As well as the familiar characters appearing on a keyboard, the current international standard (UNICODE) includes codes for characters from a variety of languages and alphabets (such as ê and ö). For simplicity, examples in this course will use only a part of this code, as given in
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References

Coffman, K. G. and Odlyzko, A. (1998) ‘The size and growth rate of the Internet’, First Monday, Vol. 3, Issue 10, http://firstmonday.org
ITU-T 1–150 (1999) B-ISDN Asynchronous Transfer Mode Functional Characteristics, ITU-T.
ITU-T X.200 (1994) Open Systems Interconnection – Model and Notation, ITU-T. (Also known as ISO/IEC 7498–1.)

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4.2.1 ATM physical layer

The ATM physical layer is divided into two sub-layers: the transmission convergence sub-layer and the physical medium sub-layer.

Functions of the transmission convergence sub-layer include generating and receiving cells, and generating and verifying the cyclic redundancy check in the header error control field. For correct interpretation of ATM cells it is important to identify the beginning of a cell. In theory, if ATM cells are transmitted as a continuous stream of bits,
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5.5.4 Loudspeakers

Speakers also produce an analogue output. The audio program inside the boundary converts the digital encoding of the sound to a series of electrical pulses that are sent to the speaker, where they cause a cone of stiffened paper (or some synthetic material) to vibrate in and out. This makes the air vibrate in the characteristic sound wave.


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5.1 As to the meaning ...

And this song is considered a perfect gem,

And as to the meaning, it's what you please.

(C.S. Calverley, Ballad)

This short section is devoted to rounding off the discussion so far. In Section 1 I remarked that a digital picture of some set of interesting features of the world is of no value unless we can examine it in some way – in other words, take it back acros
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4.15 Summary

This has been a very long section; so congratulations on your persistence!

I've considered in detail how text, pictures, moving pictures, diagrams and sound can all be reduced to numbers and stored inside the boundary in a computer's memory. A persistent theme has been the sheer size of the digital representation that we can get as the result. The need to reduce this amount of digital data, to compress the image, sound or film file we end up with, is taken up in the next course.<
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4.11.1 Digital still cameras and camcorders

These devices are now widely and (fairly) cheaply available. There is no film. You point your camera, take your shot and get a compressed digital image that can be transferred straight onto a computer, where it can be edited or printed. Digital still cameras usually compress their images into JPEG format and store them on a tiny, removable memory card inside the camera; the latest digital camcorders can record in MPEG format, stored on a special tape. Both devices work by means of an electron
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4.4 Introducing pixels

Let's try a simple example. I'm going to take an image, divide it into discrete parts and then transform the result into numbers. I shall use the simple picture of a church shown in Figure 12(a). The process will be exactly the same, whatever image we use.


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4.2.2 Standards

Representations must be agreed if they are to be shared. If different computers used different numbers to encode the same character, people would not be able to read each other's documents. There have to be standards. There are countless computer standards, covering every aspect of information technology, from music and picture encoding to programming language design. And, as you would expect, there are standards which apply to character encoding. You may have wondered why I cho
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