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4.5 Two mythological songs: ‘Prometheus’ (1819) and ‘Ganymed’ (1817)

Goethe's poem ‘Heidenröslein’, with which we began, is a mock folksong; ‘Erlkönig’ is a mock ballad along the lines of Scottish models. They are, so to speak, poems in fancy dress. ‘Prometheus’ and ‘Ganymed’ are songs on subjects from ancient Greek myth, but they are in no way imitations of ancient classical models. In these two poems Goethe has taken myths and created modern meditations on them of startling, but quite distinct, kinds.


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4.4 ‘Erlkönig’ (‘The Erl-king’, 1815)

Exercise 6

Before continuing with the unit, read the English translation of ‘Erlkönig’ by clicking on the link below. The translation attempts to stay close to the rhythm and rhyming-scheme of Goethe's poem, and should therefore g
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3 Schubert and the Lied

Schubert set to music the words of a wide range of poets, from those who were internationally famous to others who were known only locally and were among his group of friends. Schubert was capable of making a first-rate song out of a mediocre poem, and often did so. But of all the writers he set, Goethe was the one who most consistently inspired him to write songs of startling power and originality. The first of his songs to be widely acclaimed as a masterpiece was his famous setting of Gretc
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1 Schubert: introduction

This unit focuses on a selection of short poems in German that were set to music by Franz Schubert (1797–1828) for a single voice with piano, a genre known as ‘Lieder’ (the German for ‘songs’). These are miniatures, but in Schubert's hands they become miniatures of an exceptionally concentrated kind. Their characteristic distillation of the emotional essence of a poem illustrates Romanticism at its most intimate. Schubert's Lieder, once they became widely known, influenced succeedin
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4.5 The cases in Latin

‘Cases’ indicate the various functions that nouns, pronouns and adjectives can have in a sentence. The case is shown by the word-ending in Latin.

Although learning about cases is not within the scope of this introductory unit, it may help to have a short checklist of the cases and how they may be translated into English from Latin.


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4.4 Unravelling sentences

Activity 10

In the following passage, mark as many subjects, verbs and objects as you can.

James was to drive them. The first day we travelled thirty-two m
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4.3 Sentences: subject and object

A sentence consists of a number of words which, to make sense, must include a verb. Unless this is the only word in the sentence (as in ‘Run!’), there will normally be a word telling us who or what is doing the action. This doer, whether noun or pronoun, is called the subject of the verb.

Consider these sentences:

The players ran onto the pitch. The referee blew his whistle, and the centre-forward
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should have:

  • an awareness of the links between English and Latin;

  • an understanding of basic English grammar in order to recognise and describe the way languages work;

  • an awareness of the fundamentals of pronunciation in Latin.


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References

Leonard, T. (1984) Intimate voices 1965–1983, Galloping Dog Press.
MacLean, S. (trans. Crichton Smith, I.) (1970) Poems to Eimhir, Northern House.
MacLean, S. (1981) Spring tide and Neap tide: selected poems 1932–72, Canongate.
MacLean, S. (1985) Ris a'Bhruthaich: the criticism and prose writings, Aca
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2.3.6 Credits

The contributors to the recordings in this unit are Sorley MacLean and Iain Crichton-Smith; the recordings were produced by G.D. Jayalakshmi for the Open University.


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1.1 British poetry and language

To begin this unit, look at the sheet of references linked below. You will see that the list includes books by Sorley Maclean and by two other important Scottish poets, Tom Leonard and Edwin Morgan. Not one title was published in London. None of these writers has ever published a collection of poems in London. Yet the prizewinning work of Edwin Morgan is widely used in Scottish schools, and Sorley MacLean's work has been translated into several foreign languages. By the 1980s, a shift of the
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References

Anderson, M.S. (1987) Europe in the Eighteenth Century 1713–1783, 3rd edn, Harlow, Longman.
Aston, N. (1990) Religion and Revolution in France 1780–1804, Basingstoke, Macmillan.
Barzun, J. (2000) From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, New York, Harper Collins.
Benham, W. (1902) The Po
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8.2 The increasing status of feeling

Although the Enlightenment advocated the rigorous use of reason as the main means of achieving progress, some of its major thinkers also recognised the role of feeling or emotion, particularly in moral matters. Chief among these was Rousseau. He felt that ‘inner sentiment’ played an important part in matters of conscience and of religious faith, as well as in human relations. By ‘sentiment’ he meant everything embracing intuition (a word rarely used in the eighteenth century) and emot
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8.1 The forces of change: towards Romanticism

The relationship between the Enlightenment and the movement known as Romanticism, which dominated early nineteenth-century culture, is the subject of intense debate among scholars. There is no single correct way of defining this relationship, and one of the main challenges you will face in this course is in forming your own conclusions on the subject. It is possible, for example, to see the French Revolution as a cataclysmic event that tumbled the old order and ruptured faith in the Enlighten
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4.3 Responses to religion

Reasoned responses to religion could take many forms. It was rare for writers to profess outright atheism; even in those cases where we may suspect authors of holding this view, censorship laws made their public expression unlawful. These laws were particularly stringent in France. In many cases reasoned critique was applied to the practices of institutional religion, such as the corruption of the clergy or the rituals of worship, rather than to more fundamental matters of doctrine or faith.
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5.4 Tercets

The following poem is written in tercets.

There's no one here at the moment

It happens once, in his absence.

The bright hall rings, rings and, mid-ring,

clicks back over into silence.

It leaves two isolated sighs,

hers, momentarily frozen

before an ocean of blank space

that by nightfall he'll come across

and save against the backdrop of


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1.3 The Royal Artillery Memorial

Now I want to take another text. It is similar to the paintings in the Sandham Memorial Chapel in that it asks for a visual response first and foremost. We can, therefore, ask the same kinds of question – how the text came into being, the context in which it was produced, what form it takes, and how it communicates meaning.

The text is the Royal Artillery Memorial. The architect was Lionel Pearson, the architect responsible for Sandham Memorial Chapel; the sculptor was Charles Sargean
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5 Conclusion

This unit has laid the groundwork for a study of consciousness. We have identified the phenomenon in which we are interested, looked at some of its mysterious features and considered the problems it poses. You may have been wondering exactly what philosophers have to contribute here. Isn't explaining consciousness a matter for scientists – requiring the formation and testing of empirical hypotheses, not conceptual analysis and a priori reasoning? There are at least three aspects to the answ
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4.4 Physicalism and the hard problem

I introduced the hard problem as an explanatory problem – the problem of explaining how consciousness arises. But it can also be presented as a metaphysical problem – the problem of saying what kind of phenomenon consciousness is, and, more specifically, whether it is a physical one. In this section I shall say something about this aspect of the hard problem and its relation to the explanatory one.

The terms ‘physical’ and ‘physicalism’ (the view that everything is ph
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6 The relations among mental phenomena

There is no escaping the fact that want of sympathy condemns us to a corresponding stupidity. Mephistopheles thrown upon real life, and obliged to manage his own plots, would inevitably make blunders.

(George Eliot, Adam Bede)

We have seen that it seems natural to say that while it is possible for machines and angels to have intellects superior to ours, it is also natural to say that
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Case