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8.3 Entities

Here is the definition of an entity.

An entity represents a thing that has meaning in a given context and about which there is a need to record data.

A data model is not concerned with the individual entities. Instead, it describes particular types of entity. For example, all students are represented by the same types of data (student identifier, name, whether or not registere
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5.2 An example

In order to complete this section I shall present a simple example. This is loosely based on one described in [1], currently one of the very few books written on JavaSpaces technology.

An object that can be stored in a space has to implement an interface . The objects that form part of the example will just
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7.2.11 Dynamic pricing

The dynamic pricing model is one which has a number of different instantiations. Basically, such models treat the price of a product or service (primarily a product) as variable and open to negotiation.

The name-your-price instantiation of this model is where the customer of a site offers the price that he or she thinks is reasonable for a product or service. The administrator of the website will pass on this bid to the provider of the product or service who will decide whether t
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2.1 An example – supply chain management

Before looking at the wide variety of e-commerce application areas that have flourished over the last decade in more detail, it is worth looking at one which may not be familiar to a reader, but which saves companies huge amounts of resources. The application involves a supply chain. A supply chain is a set of relationships between a number of companies who have a symbiotic relationship with each other in that one company supplies commodities or services to other companies which, in tu
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1.2 Commerce and the internet

There are a number of ways in which companies can make money from the internet. Probably the best known way of making money is by selling some commodity; this could be a non-IT commodity such as a CD or item of clothing or it could be some piece of application software, a font, a browser plug-in or an operating system. Other forms of revenue raising are:

  • Auction sites which auction items on the internet and make profits by taking some commissi
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5.1.2 The human genome

All life is ‘encoded’ chemically in genes. What this means is that the structure of an organism, the organs it possesses, its colouring, and so on are all determined by different genes. A very simple organism may have just a few genes, and a complex one tens of thousands. The ‘map’ of an organism's genes is referred to as its genome. It shows, in essence, which genes give rise to which characteristics or traits of the organism. The word ‘template’ would describe the
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4.1.2 Geographical data

Modern maps are now mostly assembled by computers using very large collections of geographical data, such as latitude, longitude, altitude, roads and towns. Collections of data like this (stored in databases) aim to eliminate the need to duplicate data. The data in databases is described in symbols that the computer can handle, i.e. numbers. Even the names of features are symbolised using numbers.

If I were trying to tell you the way to a particular street in a town, using only t
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Introduction

This course explores school geography, focusing upon how geography is currently being taught and understood. While studying this course you will read about the significance of geography as a subject, considering what are the defining concepts for school geography and its educational value. The course also includes a lesson plan and a look at definitions of geography as a medium of education.

Find out more about studying with The Open University by
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Working with charts, graphs and tables
Your course might not include any maths or technical content but, at some point during your course, it’s likely that you’ll come across information represented in charts, graphs and tables. You’ll be expected to know how to interpret this information. This unit will help you to develop the skills you need to do this. This unit can be used in conjunction with the ‘More working with charts, graphs and tables’ unit, which looks into more ways to present statistical information and shows y
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Introduction

School governors need to be involved in the monitoring and evaluation of secondary schools. But what areas should you be monitoring and how can you ensure that monitoring is effective. This course will help you assess these matters and also look at the kind of evidence you should be sourcing, and how that evidence should be evaluated.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This course introduces you to the concepts of:

  • open educational resources (OERs)
  • issues involved in the creation, use and re-use, and pedagogy of OERs
  • a range of tools and media to support you in developing your own teaching and learning practices.

It will provide you with the skills and confidence to engage in further OER work as both creator and user.

Find out more about studying with The Open University by 
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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Am I ready to study in English?
Even if you feel confident using English in everyday situations, studying in English at higher education level might present extra challenges. This free course, Am I ready to study in English?, provides an opportunity for you to reflect on your English language skills through a series of academic exercises. First published on
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The ‘why’ and ‘what’ of educational leadership and management
This free course, The 'why' and 'what' of educational leadership and management, introduces you to researching educational leadership and management and how undertaking research can contribute to both good practice and the building of leadership capacity. First published on Wed, 17 Feb 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

Understanding early years environments and children’s spaces
This unit considers some of the different environments children encounter in their early years. It encourages you to develop your reflection of children’s environments and provides opportunities for you to investigate and evaluate young children’s experiences and your role in supporting them. First published
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E Simultaneous equations

Simultaneous equations are pairs of equations that are both true (i.e. they are simultaneously true). They are both expressed as equations with two unknowns. By making one of these unknowns the subject of both equations, we can then substitute the subject in one equation and then solve for the other unknown. Then we can substitute back into the equation and solve for the subject.

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3 Indices

In mathematics, we often need to find a shorthand way of representing information or data. Nowhere is this need more obvious than when we wish to represent something like the product of 2 multiplied by itself 2, 6, 10, 15 or even 20 times.

Instead of writing 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2, we write 26. This is read (and said) as ‘2 to the power 6’; 6 is the index of the power. In general, this means that

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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Unit image: Courtesy of banlon1964 Flickr [accessed 27 October 2006]

All other material within this unit originated at the Open University

1. Join the 200,000 students currently studying with The Open University.


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5.2.4 Taped material

There are many useful tapes on relaxation. See Section 6 for full details.


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5.2.3 A breathing exercise

  1. Breathe in slowly through your nose for a count of eight. As you breathe in, imagine you are filling your stomach / abdomen area first, and then your chest.

  2. Hold this breath in for as long as it is comfortable.

  3. Expel the air out through your nose for a count of eight, expelling the air from your abdomen upwards through your chest.

  4. Refrain from taking another breath until it becomes uncomfortable, and then r
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5.2.2 The emergency stop technique

This exercise is an emergency relaxation technique to counteract panic and the build up of tension.

  1. Say sharply to yourself STOP! (aloud if the situation permits).

  2. Breathe in and hold your breath for a moment before slowly exhaling. As you do so, relax your shoulders and hands.

  3. Pause for a moment, then breathe in slowly again and hold. This time, as you breathe out relax your forehead and jaw.

  4. Stay qu
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