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12.1 Localisation of sound in the horizontal plane

While information about frequency and intensity is essential for interpreting sounds in our environment, sound localisation can be of critical importance for survival. For example, if you carelessly cross the street, your localisation of a car's horn may be all that saves you. Our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying sound localisation suggests that we use different techniques for locating sources in the horizontal plane and vertical plane.

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References

Bauer, M. W. and Gaskell, G. (2002) Biotechnology: The Making of a Global Controversy, Cambridge University Press.
Bowring, F. (2003) Science, Seeds and Cyborgs, Verso, London.
Campbell, S. (2004) A genetically modified survey, Spiked 
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3.4.1 Alarm arousal

A potentially life-threatening event, such as a fall in T a to below zero, elicits a transient metabolic response in a hibernator. If the lowered temperature is maintained, the animal responds not just with transient increases in metabolism, but with a sustained rise in T b and complete arousal.

Mechanical stimuli as well as temperature changes can evoke arousal. In animals fitted with electrodes just under the skin to monitor muscle action potentials
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5.2.1 Blood pigments

The solubility of oxygen (and of many other gases) in water increases with decreasing temperature: at 0° C, seawater holds 1.6 times as much oxygen when saturated as at 20° C. This fact, and continual disturbance by frequent storms, mean that the surface waters of polar oceans are very well oxygenated. A family of 17 species of nototheniid fish, the Channichthyidae, have no erythrocytes, no haemoglobin and almost no myoglobin at all stages of the life cycle (Section 1.5).

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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Figures

Figure 2 Nortier, P. and Soustelle, M. (1987) 'Alumina carriers for automotive pollution control', in Cruecq, A. and Frennet, A. (eds) Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control, Elsevier Science Publishers;

Fi
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9.3 Monoamine oxidase A, maltreatment during childhood and later violence

One Dutch family was found to have a history of antisocial (aggressive) behaviour. Genetic studies were conducted and a potential culprit gene MAOA, monoamine oxidase A, identified. The aggressive individuals in the family appeared to have a mutant gene which produced no MAOAP, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters, including serotonin. A knockout mouse model, in which the MAOA gene was inactive, was also found to be aggressive, apparently confirming the role of MAO
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2.2 Vitamin A

Activity 4

Look back at Table 1 and identify the foods that contain vitamin A. On the basis of this information, try to predict where vitamin A is stored in the human body.

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Introduction

In this unit, we study one aspect of the fluctuating nature of an organism's environment. We consider how organisms living in a temperate climate, such as that in Britain, are adapted to cope with winter. You will see that there is much diversity of adaptations among organisms, with different species coping with the demands of a fluctuating environment in quite different ways. As cyclic variations are a widespread feature of environments, the range of adaptations to them is an important sourc
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3.3 The struggle for existence

During their lives, guppies face a variety of environmental hazards which cause mortality. They must find food and, if food supply is limited, some will die through starvation. Heavy rain periodically causes floods which may wash a large part of a population out to sea; occasional droughts cause populations to perish when streams dry out. Like all organisms, guppies are attacked by a rich variety of parasites and diseases. Of most interest to us in this discussion is that guppies are preyed u
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3.1 Introduction

The purpose of this section is to consolidate your understanding of the theory of evolution through natural selection by looking at a specific example. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is a small fish whose natural habitat is small streams in northern Trinidad, but it is also a popular aquarium fish. Male and female guppies are very different in appearance (Author(s): The Open University

1.5.9 Plagiarism

Referencing is not only useful as a way of sharing information, but also as a means of ensuring that due credit is given to other people’s work. In the electronic information age, it is easy to copy and paste from journal articles and web pages into your own work. But if you do use someone else’s work, you should acknowledge the source by giving a correct reference.

Taking someone's work and not indicating where you took it from is termed plagiarism and is regarded as an infringemen
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13 Post-compulsory science education

In a speech to the Institute of Economic Affairs in 2001, the then UK Secretary of State for Education said:

Young people choosing vocational study will be able to see a ladder of progression that gives structure, purpose and expectation to their lives, in the same way that a future pathway is clear to those who leave school to gain academic A-levels and enter university. Over-16s in full-time education will be abl
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4.13.4 Volume

The large volume of delegated legislation produced every year (some 3,000 SIs annually) means that it is very difficult for Members of Parliament, let alone the general public, to keep up to date with the present law. This is exacerbated by the fact that delegated legislation is made in private, unlike Acts of Parliament which are made following public debates in Parliament.


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Introduction

In this unit, we will consider the nature of businesses and the principal forms of business organisation. The themes covered in Part A are company, business and capital; and in Part B, business mediums, sole traders, partnerships or firms, and assets and liabilities.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Company law and practice (W223)


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1.2 Balancing the right to privacy and other rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects freedom of expression. Section 12 of the Human Rights Act 1998 requires the courts in the UK to have particular regard to the importance of the right to freedom of expression. However, freedom of expression and the right to privacy frequently collide. This can be illustrated by reference to the American case of Anonsen v Donohue (1993). In this case a woman revealed on national television that her husband had raped and impr
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3.6 The terms of the European Convention on Human Rights

In 1952 the HCPs agreed that the European Convention on Human Rights should be extended to cover additional rights and freedoms. At the time of drafting the original treaty there were heated debates about whether rights relating to property, education and democratic participation were fundamental human rights. As a compromise these were omitted from the original treaty. Their later inclusion was achieved by an instrument known as a protocol, which, although much shorter than the original ECHR
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3.2 The evolution of the EU

The EU has grown out of a series of intergovernmental political initiatives which have been expressed in a number of treaties. These treaties form the building blocks that give authority and power to the institutions and law-making bodies of the EU. The process is evolutionary, as treaties are reviewed and amended to reflect both the changing membership and the vision of the EU.

The EU is founded on several treaties:

  1. The treaty that established
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Introduction

In this unit you will analyse the role of European institutions including the European Commission and the European Court of Justice in legal rule making in England and Wales. You will also be introduced to the study skills that you will need in reading legal cases, reading and understanding Acts of Parliament, using the internet to find legal materials, taking notes, creating study diagrams and summarising ideas.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course Author(s): The Open University

6.9 Summary of Part E


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2.1 The history of the common law

Prior to the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, there was no unitary, national legal system. Before 1066 the English legal system involved a mass of oral customary rules, which varied according to region. The law of the Jutes in the south of England, for example, was different from that of the Mercians in the middle of the country (see map below). Each county had its own local court dispensing its own justice in accordance with local customs that varied from community to commun
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Rule, approach or aid Comment Cases
The literal rule Uses plain ordinary grammatical meaning of words and avoids judicial law making, but can lead to absurd decisions and injustices and assumes unattainable perfection in draftsmanship Fisher v Bell (1960)