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1.6.1 Introduction

The process of keeping up-to-date in your chosen subject area is useful for your studies and afterwards, for your own personal satisfaction, or perhaps in your career as part of your continuing professional development.

There are a great many tools available that make it quite easy to keep yourself up to date. You can set them up so that the information comes to you, rather than you having to go out on the web looking for it. Over the next few pages, you will be experimenting with some
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Introduction

Contributions from leading academics, voluntary sector campaigners and practitioners, highlight the distinctive features of Scotland's experience of poverty and the extent to which devolved and reserved policies have contributed to progress in tackling it.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from the book Poverty in Scotland 2011, originally published by Child Poverty Action Group, in association with Glasgow Caledonian University, The Open University and Pove
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6.7 What about alternatives to secession?

We have seen that in principle there are alternatives: cultural autonomy or a form of federalism. There are alternative ways to recognise 'national' identity apart from secession.

One conclusion to arise from this discussion of secession is that we are not cast adrift without any general principles or guidelines. We have also seen how the complexities of the real political world impinge upon poli
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • grasp the concepts of nation, nationalism and self-determination;

  • have a better understanding of the role they play in current political disputes;

  • think about the problem of how to take democratic decisions about secession;

  • relate political theory to political practice more rigorously;

  • take a more informed and active part in debates about national and international politic
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Introduction

This unit is based on a chapter from the book Living Political Ideas, which is part of the current course DD203 Power, Equality and Dissent. It really attempts to do two things at once. It is about the core concepts and processes with which human groups that think of themselves as nations challenge the existing order and assert their right to a state of their own. And at the same time it is a kind of gentle introduction to how to study political ideas. It is more theoretical, or
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7.3 Summary of Section 7

  • The historian Linda Colley locates the birth of ‘Britain’ after 1707. She mentions three main factors that contributed to establishing the British nation: war, religion and the prospect of material advantage.

  • The creation of the UK was not free from conflict, resistance, war and military intervention.

  • The British Empire generated a unique opportunity for most UK nations to participate and enjoy some of the benefits it b
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3.1 Gender-based disadvantage

The post-war period has seen a significant increase in the participation of women in the labour market, with women now making up around 45 per cent of the UK workforce. Although women still undertake the major share of family responsibilities and domestic activities, an increasing number of women are entering the labour market. This increase is evident in many countries and has been associated with an improvement in the relative earnings of women. This trend towards greater equality is eviden
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1.2 From private trouble to public issue: the emergence of negative equity

In the housing market, owner-occupiers have occasionally sold their property at a price below that which they paid for it. In the early 1990s, large numbers of property owners in the UK (and particularly in south-east England) found that the market value of their houses and flats had fallen below the original purchase price. A private trouble emerged as a public issue. It was named, and became the problem of ‘negative equity’. This was identified as a widespread problem rather than a matt
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Introduction

Pictures speak louder than words. But how can you use diagrams to help you? This course, Systems diagramming, looks at how diagrams can be used to represent information and ideas about complex situations. You will learn how to read, draw and present diagrams to help illustrate how ideas or processes are connected.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 1 study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

Why is the way something looks important? Text, colour, images, moving images and sound all interact to produce a user friendly environment within a user interface. This course will help you understand the effect each software component has on the user and explain how a consistent and thoughtful application of these components can have a significant impact on the ‘look’ of final product.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

Computer crashes are often the result of viruses, worms or Trojans as unfortunately some internet users want to cause havoc or vandalise your computer. This course provides a guide to the downsides of living with the Net. Advice on how to deal with these dangers is provided and security issues like spyware and adware are explained. The course also deals with protecting children online, and provides links to various helpful websites which deal with the problems raised.

This OpenLearn cou
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Managing complexity: A systems approach – introduction
Do you need to change the way you think when faced with a complex situation? This free course, Managing complexity: A systems approach introduction, examines how systemic thinking and practice enables you to cope with the connections between things, events and ideas. By taking a broader perspective complexity becomes manageable and it is easier to accept that gaps in knowledge can be acceptable. Author(s): Creator not set

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Introduction

The aim of this course is to answer five questions:

  • Why is systems engineering important?

  • What is modern engineering?

  • What is systems?

  • What is systems engineering?

  • What approach to systems engineering does the course adopt?

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of level 3 study in Author(s): The Open University

Exercises on Section 1

Exercise 1

  • (a) How many characters are there in the string “This text.”?

  • (b) Which of the following are integers: 3, 0, 98, 4, –22,Author(s): The Open University

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References

Coffman, K. G. and Odlyzko, A. (1998) ‘The size and growth rate of the Internet’, First Monday, Vol. 3, Issue 10, http://firstmonday.org
ITU-T 1–150 (1999) B-ISDN Asynchronous Transfer Mode Functional Characteristics, ITU-T.
ITU-T X.200 (1994) Open Systems Interconnection – Model and Notation, ITU-T. (Also known as ISO/IEC 7498–1.)

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4.2 ATM layers

In this section I shall briefly review some of the main functions of the ATM layers but I shall not go into too much detail because at this stage we are interested in only the general points about protocols.


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5.5.4 Loudspeakers

Speakers also produce an analogue output. The audio program inside the boundary converts the digital encoding of the sound to a series of electrical pulses that are sent to the speaker, where they cause a cone of stiffened paper (or some synthetic material) to vibrate in and out. This makes the air vibrate in the characteristic sound wave.


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5.1 As to the meaning ...

And this song is considered a perfect gem,

And as to the meaning, it's what you please.

(C.S. Calverley, Ballad)

This short section is devoted to rounding off the discussion so far. In Section 1 I remarked that a digital picture of some set of interesting features of the world is of no value unless we can examine it in some way – in other words, take it back a
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4.15 Summary

This has been a very long section; so congratulations on your persistence!

I've considered in detail how text, pictures, moving pictures, diagrams and sound can all be reduced to numbers and stored inside the boundary in a computer's memory. A persistent theme has been the sheer size of the digital representation that we can get as the result. The need to reduce this amount of digital data, to compress the image, sound or film file we end up with, is taken up in the next unit.
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4.11.1 Digital still cameras and camcorders

These devices are now widely and (fairly) cheaply available. There is no film. You point your camera, take your shot and get a compressed digital image that can be transferred straight onto a computer, where it can be edited or printed. Digital still cameras usually compress their images into JPEG format and store them on a tiny, removable memory card inside the camera; the latest digital camcorders can record in MPEG format, stored on a special tape. Both devices work by means of an electron
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