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1 Water as a global resource

We shall not finally defeat AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria or any of the other infectious diseases that plague the developing world until we have also won the battle for safe drinking-water, sanitation and basic health care.

(Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary-General (2005) The International Decade for Action 2003–2015)

Freshwater is a natural resource that is vital for human survival and
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3.8.1 Standard deviation: finding how reproducible a series of measurements are

Even if we know the maximum and minimum and middle values in a group of numbers, we still don't have a clear idea about the distribution of values within that range: are most of the values all bunched up at one end or spread evenly across the results?

For instance, if I count my pulse rate on the hour every hour, nine times over the course of a day, I might get the following values for the number of beats per minute (bpm): 61, 59, 60, 62, 60, 100, 59, 63, 61. The average result is 65 bp
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2.3 Common maths problems and errors in the workplace

In a busy, hospital environment mistakes with medicines and other treatments can happen at any time. Some of these are caused by communication/administrative problems, whilst others are due to mathematical errors (the news stories shown in Figure 7 are sadly typical).

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Study Note 3: ‘Dos and don'ts’ with decimals in the healthcare workplace

As suggested in Box 1 above, there are a number of common ‘dos and don'ts’ that you need to remember and apply whenever you are dealing with decimals in your workplace.

  • Look carefully! Because a decimal point is just a dot on the page it is sometimes easy to miss when reading, especially on lined paper or in faxed documents. For this reason if there are no whole units, always place a zero before the decimal point when writing decimal numbe
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5.1 Introduction

Figure 9
Figure 9 Lithotectonic units of the British Isles

In previous sections, it was revealed that in the British Isles, the Phanerozoic er
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6.4 Chemical equations and chemical reactions

The previous section shows how different elements can either exist on their own or combine with other elements to make compounds. This section builds on these ideas by looking at chemical reactions in more detail. It also shows how chemical shorthand can be extended to describing chemical reactions.

First, consider some of the molecules described earlier: water, methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia.

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2.2.1 Using a calculator for scientific notation

You are likely to be doing many calculations with numbers in scientific notation, so it is important that you know how to input them on your calculator efficiently and how to interpret the results.

First, make sure that you can input numbers in scientific notation on your calculator. There are a couple of ways to do this, but the most straightforward is to use the special button provided for entering scientific notation. This might be labelled as EXP, EE, E or EX, but there is considera
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Acknowledgements

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Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged be
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12.1 Localisation of sound in the horizontal plane

While information about frequency and intensity is essential for interpreting sounds in our environment, sound localisation can be of critical importance for survival. For example, if you carelessly cross the street, your localisation of a car's horn may be all that saves you. Our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying sound localisation suggests that we use different techniques for locating sources in the horizontal plane and vertical plane.

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References

Bauer, M. W. and Gaskell, G. (2002) Biotechnology: The Making of a Global Controversy, Cambridge University Press.
Bowring, F. (2003) Science, Seeds and Cyborgs, Verso, London.
Campbell, S. (2004) A genetically modified survey, Spiked 
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3.4.1 Alarm arousal

A potentially life-threatening event, such as a fall in T a to below zero, elicits a transient metabolic response in a hibernator. If the lowered temperature is maintained, the animal responds not just with transient increases in metabolism, but with a sustained rise in T b and complete arousal.

Mechanical stimuli as well as temperature changes can evoke arousal. In animals fitted with electrodes just under the skin to monitor muscle action potentials
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5.2.1 Blood pigments

The solubility of oxygen (and of many other gases) in water increases with decreasing temperature: at 0° C, seawater holds 1.6 times as much oxygen when saturated as at 20° C. This fact, and continual disturbance by frequent storms, mean that the surface waters of polar oceans are very well oxygenated. A family of 17 species of nototheniid fish, the Channichthyidae, have no erythrocytes, no haemoglobin and almost no myoglobin at all stages of the life cycle (Section 1.5).

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Figures

Figure 2 Nortier, P. and Soustelle, M. (1987) 'Alumina carriers for automotive pollution control', in Cruecq, A. and Frennet, A. (eds) Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control, Elsevier Science Publishers;

Fi
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9.3 Monoamine oxidase A, maltreatment during childhood and later violence

One Dutch family was found to have a history of antisocial (aggressive) behaviour. Genetic studies were conducted and a potential culprit gene MAOA, monoamine oxidase A, identified. The aggressive individuals in the family appeared to have a mutant gene which produced no MAOAP, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters, including serotonin. A knockout mouse model, in which the MAOA gene was inactive, was also found to be aggressive, apparently confirming the role of MAO
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2.2 Vitamin A

Activity 4

Look back at Table 1 and identify the foods that contain vitamin A. On the basis of this information, try to predict where vitamin A is stored in the human body.

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Introduction

In this unit, we study one aspect of the fluctuating nature of an organism's environment. We consider how organisms living in a temperate climate, such as that in Britain, are adapted to cope with winter. You will see that there is much diversity of adaptations among organisms, with different species coping with the demands of a fluctuating environment in quite different ways. As cyclic variations are a widespread feature of environments, the range of adaptations to them is an important sourc
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3.3 The struggle for existence

During their lives, guppies face a variety of environmental hazards which cause mortality. They must find food and, if food supply is limited, some will die through starvation. Heavy rain periodically causes floods which may wash a large part of a population out to sea; occasional droughts cause populations to perish when streams dry out. Like all organisms, guppies are attacked by a rich variety of parasites and diseases. Of most interest to us in this discussion is that guppies are preyed u
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3.1 Introduction

The purpose of this section is to consolidate your understanding of the theory of evolution through natural selection by looking at a specific example. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) is a small fish whose natural habitat is small streams in northern Trinidad, but it is also a popular aquarium fish. Male and female guppies are very different in appearance (Author(s): The Open University

1.5.9 Plagiarism

Referencing is not only useful as a way of sharing information, but also as a means of ensuring that due credit is given to other people’s work. In the electronic information age, it is easy to copy and paste from journal articles and web pages into your own work. But if you do use someone else’s work, you should acknowledge the source by giving a correct reference.

Taking someone's work and not indicating where you took it from is termed plagiarism and is regarded as an infringemen
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13 Post-compulsory science education

In a speech to the Institute of Economic Affairs in 2001, the then UK Secretary of State for Education said:

Young people choosing vocational study will be able to see a ladder of progression that gives structure, purpose and expectation to their lives, in the same way that a future pathway is clear to those who leave school to gain academic A-levels and enter university. Over-16s in full-time education will be abl
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