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4.2 Other members of the bear family

Other omnivorous species of bear include the Asian black bear, the North American black bear and the Andean spectacled bear. Although polar bears spend their winters hunting seals out on the Arctic sea-ice, they have to come ashore when the ice melts in spring and find other sources of food.

Activity 2
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5.3 Hindgut fermenters

The odd-toed ungulates (comprising the order Perissodactyla), the horses, tapirs and rhinoceroses, are hindgut fermenters, as are elephants. Update Table 2 with this information. These animals have a relatively simple, small undivided stomach, but this time an even larger caecum and colon where the microbes are housed and whe
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6 Reflection

If you are working through all the units in this series, you'll be aware that this unit has taken a somewhat different tack from earlier ones. I've used rodents to explore some fundamental biological principles that have a relevance far beyond this particular order. It is especially appropriate to talk about issues such as biological success in connection with rodents, given their very wide geographical distribution and the very large number of rodent species and individuals. You'll recall (f
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3.5 Line graphs

To illustrate how to create and use line graphs, we will use the example of a calibration curve.

A calibration curve is a type of line graph in which the response of a measuring device to a series of known concentrations of a substance is plotted. You can then make a measurement of an unknown sample – in the case we're about to examine, blood serum samples from new-born infants – and use the calibration curve to work out what concentration of substance is present.


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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • read data presented in tables;

  • use scientific notation to express both large and small quantities;

  • appreciate why chemists use different models to represent molecules;

  • identify the number and type(s) of atom present in a molecule from its chemical formula;

  • identify the reactants and products of a reaction in a chemical equation;

  • read and write using chemical
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Introduction

This unit is an introduction to chemistry concepts, using water as the main illustration. Much of the unit is devoted to exploring the smallest water particle – a water molecule – what it is and how it gives rise to the particular properties of water. The unit also explains powers of ten and scientific notation, which are a convenient way of expressing both very large and very small numbers. It is a good introduction to science.

This unit is an adapted extract from the course
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9 Sedimentation at the end of the Caledonian Orgeny; Section 10 Legacy

The document attached below includes the ninth and tenth sections of Mountain building in Scotland, as well as the index. In these sections, you will find the following subsections:

  • 9.1 Introduction

  • 9.2 The Old Red Sandstone and the Devonian Period

  • 9.3 Distribution and stratigraphy of the Late Silurian to Devonian Basins

  • 9.4 Sedimentation and tectonics in the Midland Valley

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Summary

The ear is made up of the outer, middle and inner ears. The outer ear consists of the pinna, the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane. The middle ear is air-filled and contains the middle ear ossicles. The inner ear is fluid-filled and contains the cochlea, the semicircular canals and the vestibule.

Sound in the external environment is channelled into the auditory meatus by the pinna and impinges on the tympanic membrane causing it to vibrate. These vibrations are transmitt
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3.1 Introduction

The inner ear (Figure 3) can be divided into three parts: the semicircular canals, the vestibule and the cochlea, all of which are located in the temporal bone. The semicircular canals and the vestibule affect the sense of balance and are not concerned with hearing. However, the cochlea, and what goes on inside it, provides
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Text

Figures
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2.4 The effect of interstellar dust

Let's now consider the dust. Photoexcitation (by absorption of photons) and collisional excitation (by atoms/molecules) occur in the atoms and molecules that constitute the surface of a dust grain. Much of this energy is shared throughout the grain, raising its temperature until thermal radiation from the grain balances the energy absorbed. An alternative fate for an incident photon is to be scattered (Figure 15), a process that is very efficient at certain wavelengths. Figure 20 illustrates
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2.3 The effect of interstellar gas

You have seen that the ISM has been studied through the radiation that the gas and dust absorb, emit and scatter. Figure 15 summarizes the differences between these three phenomena.

Let's first consider the three phenomena in relation to the gas. The gas scatters very little light and so we need only consider absorption and emission of radiation. You have already met absorption and emission of photons by atoms (which we shall call photoexcitation and photoemissio
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5.5 Summary of Section 5

When oestradiol combines with its receptor inside neurons, the cell produces proteins which protect it from cell death. As a consequence, the male brain, which has oestradiol in its neurons in early life, becomes different from the female brain, which does not have oestradiol in its neurons. Retinoic acid is needed in high concentrations to produce those proteins associated with posterior structures of the embryo, whilst retinoic acid is needed in low concentrations to produce those proteins
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4.1 Parental behaviour

A moment's reflection will convince you that parental behaviour differs from one family to another. The effect that different parental styles have on the development of the recipient offspring is very difficult to establish. In part this is to do with the host of other differences between families, not least their genetics and socio-economic status. But also the difficulty arises because to determine cause and effect requires prolonged and intrusive observations of a sort that is not possible
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1.2 The ‘genes and behaviour’ problem

Amidst the progressive change to the brain and nervous system that occurs during development, there is one constant, one fixed element; the set of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA, molecules found in each cell. These molecules are the genetic material, and they store the information for the construction of the organism. The same set of DNA molecules is found in every cell of an organism (its genome). (There are some exceptions to this such as sperm, unfertilised egg and red blood cells, but they ne
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1.8 Enter aspirin!

Aspirin is able to release part of its ester group (Figure 15) in a hydrolysis reaction. Look again at the structure of aspirin, 2.8, and identify this group on the molecule. It is known as an acetyl group and accounts for aspirin also being called acetylsalicylic acid. The acetyl group on aspirin is fairly easily removed and can be available for forming another ester with an —OH group on another molecule; in this case, part of the structure that makes up the inside of the cavi
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1.7.2 How enzymes work

Enzyme molecules have an ‘active site’ that is a specific shape for a given enzyme. It is here that reactant molecules are converted into products. The active site binds to and holds the reactant molecule in exactly the right position for the reaction to take place. Effectively it fits around the molecule rather like a glove fits around a hand. This very precise three-dimensional structure can only be achieved by enzymes being large complex molecules.

Because the enzyme fits the re
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1.2.3 The transmission of genetic material

The full complement of 46 chromosomes in the human genome, the diploid number, is restored at fertilization. As Figure 3.1 shows, all the somatic cells and cells in the testes and ovaries arise from the same fertilized egg by the process of mitosis; the cells all contain copies of the same genetic material (with some exceptions).

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1.3 Different models of PhDs within and across disciplines

There are many different models of how a PhD might be conducted. The models are shaped by the expected place of study (e.g. on the OU campus, in an industry laboratory, at the kitchen table), by the intensity of study and focus (e.g. full time, part time), by the number of influences on the research (e.g. student directed, part of a larger research project, part of an industry research programme), by the level of intended guidance (e.g. taught introduction, supervision-as-collaboration, large
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary and is used under licence.

Figures

Figure 1 IPR/15-22, reproduced b permission of the British Geological Survey. © NERC. All rights reserved;

Figure 10 & 16 Courtesy
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