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1.9.1 Moving around the rock cycle

One way of illustrating the possible ways of moving material around the rock cycle is to draw a diagram that places the processes into their geological contexts. Since the rock cycle involves processes occurring on the Earth's surface and also within its interior, we use a cross-section through the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle to do this, as shown in Author(s): The Open University

1.8.2 Interpretation of a geological exposure

We now want to make use of the observations obtained by sketching the exposure, and it is useful to start by briefly summarising the features seen. First of all, you probably noticed the large boulder in the foreground of Figure 16 (which has been attached below for ease of access). Where did this boul
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1.8.1 Making and using field sketches

How do we start to make sense of a rock exposure? Drawing a sketch is one of the best ways to start, as it forces you to notice many aspects of the exposure. It also helps you to build up a picture of which aspects are significant and which are incidental or even irrelevant to a geological study. The aim of a field sketch is that it provides a record of your observations (along with notes taken at the same time, and also perhaps a photograph to record details). A sketch is complementary to a
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1.8 Geological fieldwork

Although much can be learned from samples of rocks in the laboratory or at home, the ‘natural habitat’ of rocks is outdoors. Here the distribution and layout of different rocks is visible wherever rocks are exposed in places such as stream beds, cliffs, rocky shorelines, quarries, or road cuttings. The exposed rocks can be studied in just the same detail as individual laboratory samples, and geological fieldwork allows the size and extent of each rock unit to be seen and the relationships
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1.4 Reflecting telescopes

A lens is not the only object that can collect and focus light and thus produce visual images. People have known about and used mirrors for much of recorded history, but it took no less a genius than Isaac Newton to realise how a curved mirror could be used to construct an optical telescope, and that this would overcome some of the most important shortcomings of refracting telescopes.

As noted earlier, a concave spherical mirror will reflect parallel rays approaching along its ax
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References

Baker, J. M. R. (1992) Body condition and tail height in great crested newts, Triturus cristatus, Animal Behaviour, 43, pp. 157–159.
Bronson, F. H. (1987) Environmental regulation of reproduction in rodents. In: Psychobiology of Reproductive Behavior, D. Crews (ed.), Prentice Hall, New Jersey. p. 209.
Hedenstrom, A. and Alerstam, T. (1992) Climbing perfo
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1.8 Primordial nucleosynthesis

Time: 100 s to 1000 s

Temperature: 109 K to 3 × 108 K

Energy: 300 keV to 100 keV

As the temperature continued to decrease, protons and neutrons were able to combine to make light nuclei. This marked the beginning of the period referred to as the era of primordial nucleosynthesis (which literally means ‘making nuclei’). The first such reaction to become energetically favoured was that of a single proton and neutron comb
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6: Summary

All objects, irrespective of their mass, experience the same acceleration g when falling freely under the influence of gravity at the same point on the Earth. Close to the Earth's surface, g=9.8 m s−2. The weight of an object is the force F g due to gravity acting on the object, and for an object with mass m the weight is given by F g=mg.

If the height of an object of mass m changes by Δh, the ch
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Learning outcomes

At the end of this unit you should know that:

  • By biological evolution we mean that many of the organisms that inhabit the Earth today are different from those that inhabited it in the past.

  • Natural selection is one of several processes that can bring about evolution, although it can also promote stability rather than change.

  • The four propositions underlying Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection are: (1) more individuals are produced
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Introduction

In this unit, we describe the theory of evolution by natural selection as proposed by Charles Darwin in his book, first published in 1859, On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. We will look at natural selection as Darwin did, taking inheritance for granted, but ignoring the mechanisms underlying it.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extracted from Discovering science (S103) whic
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1.5.2 Ways of organizing yourself

How do you organize yourself?

Activity

Make a note of how you organise your:

  • emails

  • internet bookmarks or favorites

  • computer files

  • your h
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1.4.1 PROMPT

There is so much information available on the Internet on every topic imaginable. But how do you know if it is any good? And if you find a lot more information than you really need, how do you decide what to keep and who to discard?

In this section we are going to introduce a simple checklist to help you to judge the quality of the information you find. Before we do this, spend a few minutes thinking about what is meant by information quality.

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1.3.8 News sources

Many news sources are now available online. Searching an online version of a newspaper is easier, quicker and more effective than searching through printed indexes, microfilm or actual newspapers.

EurekAlert! A global gateway dealing with news and links to information in the fields
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1.1.5 Organising Information

How confident are you that you know when it is appropriate to cite references (refer to the work of other people) in your written work?

  • 5 - Very confident

  • 4 - Confident

  • 3 - Fairly confident

  • 2 - Not very confident

  • 1 - Not confident at all

How confident do you feel about producing bibliographies (lists of references) in an appropriate format to accompany your written
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this guide you should be able to:

  • conduct your own searches efficiently and effectively;

  • find references to material in bibliographic databases;

  • make efficient use of full text electronic journals services;

  • critically evaluate information from a variety of sources;

  • understand the importance of organizing your own information;

  • identify some of the systems available;

  • describe ho
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary and is used under licence.

Text

The following articles (originally published as mentioned below) appear in Reconsidering Science Learning (2004) (eds) Eileen Scanlon, P
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7.3 Multiple interpretations in science

Talking of media reports of the Chernobyl episode, Millar and Wynne point out that:

[disagreements between scientists] become difficult to interpret, other than in terms of bias or incompetence. Divergences between the data and interpretations of pressure groups … and the official sources are attributed to the former [bias]; those between different official agencies … to the latter [incompetence]. Only in a han
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Introduction

This unit is designed to introduce you to the supreme law-making body within the UK: the UK Parliament situated at Westminster, London. You will also examine the wide variety of sources that influence Parliament including constituents, pressure groups and Parliamentary subcommittees. This unit will also introduce you to the skills required in reading legal cases, reading and understanding Acts of Parliament, taking notes and summarising ideas.

This unit is an adapted extract from the co
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3.5 Review of learning outcomes

Decide for yourself, by working through the table below, whether you have satisfied the learning outcomes for Part B.

<
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5.2.3 Looking at the intention of the rule-maker

To resolve these problems, a rule-applier may adopt a yet broader interpretive strategy. This involves attempting to work out what the intention of the rule-maker was when the rule was formulated. In other words, it means going beyond or outside the language of the rule itself. In the context of a statute (i.e. an Act of Parliament), this may involve the rule-applier (the judge) looking at the law that existed before the statute was enacted and working out what the problem with that la
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I am confident that I have a sufficiently comprehensive understanding to enable me to move on. I am sufficiently confident in my understanding to enable me to move on, but I am aware that I need to revisit the material later.