John Major
This site is intended as a record of the political history, biography and achievements of John Major who was British Prime Minster from 1990-97. It provides a biography of the man, and an overview of the key political events during his administration from 1990-97. Also available are a small number of transcripts of his speeches, including his resignation speech, the full-text of the Conservative Party election manifestoes of 1992 and 1997 and a set of links to related Internet sites.
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Europe: still a common vision?
Dr Wolfgang Schäuble (German Federal Minister of Finance) delivers a lecture for the European Studies Centre, St Antony's College on 29th October 2012.
Author(s): Wolfgang Schäuble, Chris Patten, Othon Anistasak

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Colloquium Week 5: "Funding Conservation and Development in the Dominican Republic"
A Paper detailing fieldwork analysing funding for conservation and development in the Dominican Republic. The debate over the best way to conserve biological resources while allowing for the development of communities that live around or in and work with those resources has long been contentious. The degree to which forest residents, subsistence farmers, and indigenous tribes degrade or protect biodiversity remains unresolved, as does the best way to merge the interests and needs of communities
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Pittenweem local authority recycling centre
Photos of this small recycling facility in Fife
Author(s): Bill Kasman

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4.1 The rate of evolution

I now want to move away from looking at the challenges facing all aquatic mammals, to examine very briefly what we know about the evolutionary history of the cetaceans. This group has travelled furthest from its terrestrial roots and made the fullest adaptation to life in the sea.

Since mammals evolved on land, it has long seemed reasonable to suggest that the origin of whales must have involved an evolutionary transition from the land to the water. But how can we explain the fact that
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3.2 Natural dives

The physiology of the diving response can be studied in the laboratory, but investigating the behaviour of a diving mammal in its natural environment can be more of a problem. However, modern physiological techniques have made it possible to record continuously physiological variables (such as heart rate) and information on depth and position during the spontaneous dives in the wild that are part of the animal's normal behaviour. Most such findings show that the majority of an animal's dives
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2.7 … and becoming more intelligent

Intelligence is a useful commodity: it can help an animal to make sense of its environment and cope with the demands of social behaviour (including courtship and competition). Hunters tend to be relatively intelligent, and otters, pinnipeds and cetaceans, for example, share a playful curiosity that is characteristic of animals that catch other animals for a living. Some especially extravagant claims have been made for the intelligence of the toothed whales, largely because these animals use c
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Introduction

The versatility of mammals is a central theme of the ‘Studying mammals’ series of units, but surely no environment has tested that versatility as much as the rivers and oceans of the world. Mammals are essentially a terrestrial group of animals, but three major groups have independently adopted an aquatic way of life. In moving to the water, aquatic mammals have had to survive, feed and reproduce using a set of biological characteristics that evolved in association with life on land. This
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3.3.1 Writing out electronic configurations

In Section 3.2, we described Figure 21 as an energy-level diagram, which represented the build-up of electronic configurations as electrons were inserted into sub-shells of progressively increasing energy. However, Figure 21 has been designed for just one purpose: to generate the correct electronic configurations in our tho
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Introduction

When we try to use ordinary language to explore mathematics, the words involved may not have a precise meaning, or may have more than one meaning. Many words have meanings that evolve as people adapt their understanding of them to accord with new experiences and new ideas. At any given time, one person's interpretation of language may differ from another person's interpretation, and this can lead to misunderstandings and confusion.

In mathematics we try to avoid these difficulties by ex
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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Modelling heat transfer

The main teaching text of this unit is provided in the workbook below. The answers to the exercises that you'll find throughout the workbook are given in the answer book. You can access it by clicking on the link under the workbook.

Click 'View document' to open the workbook (PDF, 0.4 MB).

1.1 Experiences of learning mathematics

You will come to this unit with many memories of mathematics, both as a teacher and a learner. It may help if you start by recalling memories of learning mathematics and making a record of them in your notebook.

When you work on a task, get into the habit of having your notebook to hand to record your thinking. Use the notebook in any way that helps you to think about the work you have done. Some people find it helpful to divide a page into two columns using the left-hand side to record
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1.2.2 Bringing in the atmosphere: the natural greenhouse effect

As a dam built across a river causes a local deepening of the stream, so our atmosphere, thrown as a barrier across the terrestrial rays, produces a local heightening of the temperature at the Earth's surface.

(Tyndall, 1862, quoted in Weart, 2004)

Thus, writing in 1862, John Tyndall (Figure 6) described the key to our modern understanding of why the Earth's surface is so much warmer than t
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1.4.3 It's all down to connections

For Iris Marion Young, the responsibility of those in North America and Europe towards distant others does indeed rest with their connections to injustices elsewhere, but it would be a mistake to stretch this line of reasoning too far. Although these connections, whether as a consumer, boardroom executive or shop manager, can establish a line of responsibility, as was claimed in Section 3.1, for Young this is only the starting point and not the end point of our involvement. We do not have to
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1.3.6 Activity 4

Activity 4

Nike drew up its code of conduct, as I have indicated, to meet its own concerns. Cast your eye down the checklist in Extract 2 and give yourself time to consider what issues might have been added if the code had been drawn u
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References

Allison, L. (1991) Ecology and Utility: The Philosophical Dilemmas of Planetary Management, Leicester, Leicester University Press.
BBC (2008) ‘The wrong way to a warmer world?’ [online], BBC News, 3 April, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/analysis/7328634.stm (accessed 15/4/10).
van den Born, R.J.G. (2008) ‘Rethinking nature: public visions in the Netherlan
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Acknowledgements

Author

This unit was prepared by Tom Power with guidance from Dr Arlene Hunter.

Tom Power is a lecturer in science education at The Open University. His research interests include teacher education in the global south (www.open.ac.uk/deep) and the CASE intervention. He has been a teacher and an advisory teacher in East Sussex and a specialist adviser to the TTA teacher research panel.

Dr Arlëne Hunter, Staff Tutor in Science in Ireland
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2 Setting priorities

Activity 3

4.7 Summary

Human activity has been responsible for some extinctions and othe deleterious changes to habitats. These changes have not always been the result of thoughtless or selfish behaviour; often intentions were worthy, but outcomes were not as predicted. The importance of genetic diversith is demonstrated here in relation to Dutch Elm disease. The need to retain genetic diversity in plants, used for food and medicine, is recognized in such initiatives as the Kew Milennium Seed Bank Appeal.


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6.4 Technology and environment

At the start of this unit I asked a simple question: am I damaging the environment by using my fridge? I warned that it wasn't my intention to give a simple answer that we should all stop using refrigerators or all carry on regardless. Instead, we have explored the issue more widely, calling on a range of ideas and background information in the Case Studies. It is time to review some of the concepts we have been using.


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