Introduction

The topic of ‘governance’ is one that has gained popularity, and the term is now used to embrace a range of concepts. This course establishes some basic principles that will form the basis of your study. You will have the opportunity to consider how well these principles match up with your own observations of corporate organisations and behaviour

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This course looks at the management of local knowledge-generating practices. You will explore the processes that link practices to global contexts and learn to identify the key dimensions of globalisation and explore the implications for knowing how to ‘do things’ in a variety of contexts. You will go on to compare the approaches to managing and organising, based on universally applicable principles, with context-specific rationalities and look at how viable interpretations of reality mig
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • contribute to the implementation of project activities

  • monitor, and recommend adjustments to activities, resources and plans

  • maintain communications with project stakeholders

  • contribute to developing solutions to project problems.


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1.6 Evaluation matrices

When there are several courses of action, then one way of thinking clearly about the advantages and drawbacks of the different courses is to compile an evaluation matrix.

Box 1: Six steps to creating an evaluation matrix

  1. List the various opti
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1.4 Bar charts

A bar chart is another way of presenting data. It is designed to show frequency distribution, for example, the number of staff in each of four categories in an organisation. You could present the data given in Table 6 in a bar chart as shown in Author(s): The Open University

5.4 The role of brands and branding

Keller (2003) distinguishes between a ‘small-b brand’ as defined by the American Marketing Association:

name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition

(Keller, 2003, p. 3)

and the industry/practitioner definition of ‘a big-B brand’. F
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3.3 The importance of understanding motivation

Personal characteristics in Figure 1 combine both psychological and personal factors. Two important factors which drive behaviour are motivation and attitudes.

MacFadyen et al. (1998) (see Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • describe and explain the meaning and nature of social marketing

  • analyse social marketing problems and suggest ways of solving these

  • recognise the range of stakeholders involved in social marketing programmes and their role as target markets

  • assess the role of branding, social advertising and other communications in achieving behavioural change.


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2 Contribution and roles

Hilary Cremin et al. (2003), in their evaluation of the ways in which teachers and teaching assistants can work together in teams, suggest that, while there is enthusiasm for additional support, little attention is given to how this actually works in classrooms. It is true that learning support staff have been introduced into classrooms without clear research evidence that they can make a difference to children’s learning, but then life often moves faster than the supply of research evidenc
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References

Frame, J.D. (1987) Managing Projects in Organizations: How to Make the Best Use of Time, Techniques and People, San Francisco, Jossey Bass.
Buzan, T. (1982) Use Your Head, London, Ariel Books.

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1.3 Examples of projects

  • A project might involve establishing a new product or service, developing an existing product or service or discontinuing a product or closing a service that is no longer required.

  • A project might arise from recognition of new needs of customers or service users or from an opportunity that is expected to deliver benefits to the organisation.

  • Projects might also arise from a new organisational requirement, for example, as a
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1.2 What is expected from projects?

  • The project may be expected to deliver financial benefits to the organisation.

  • In the public sector projects are usually expected to lead to social, economic and political outcomes.

All projects are different. The level of complexity differs and the context in which a project exists will affect it. There is no single right way to manage a project. All projects have customers.

There are three key dimensions to a projec
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify the main features of a project

  • explain the importance of the key dimensions of budget, time and quality

  • identify the links between a project's scope and definition and a sponsor's strategic and operational objectives

  • agree the objectives of the project in sufficient detail to enable it to be planned effectively

  • assess the feasibility of a project and to negoti
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Understanding the past
Care can make deep inroads into personal lives and life narratives, so it is essential that care workers are sensitive to this and provide appropriate support. In this free course, Understanding the past, the history of Lennox Castle Hospital in Scotland provides a focus for considering the impact of institutional life. First published on Fri, 04 Mar 2016
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

6.2 Introduction to the law in contemporary Scotland

This course will introduce you to law making in Scotland. It is taken from W150 An introduction to law in contemporary Scotland, a new 15-point course from The Open University's Centre for Law. The course begins by developing your general and legal study skills such as reading unfamiliar information, note taking and critical thinking. It then asks you to think about what law is and introduces you to the legal history of Scotland. The course then moves to look at the Scottish Parliament
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1.1.1 Culture and society in Scotland

Scotland has a rich and distinctive cultural heritage based on many aspects including language, history, music and literature. For a small country whose population has never been much in excess of five million, Scotland can be justifiably proud of its past achievements. However there have been significant changes in Scotland over the last decade, principally arising from devolution in 1999. This section of OpenLearn Scotland introduces learners to a wide range of topics reflecting both Scotla
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Introduction

This course serves as a gateway to over 30 courses that have been specifically developed to reflect the enormous interest in Scottish culture and society. The collection of courses as a whole demonstrates The Open University's commitment to delivering a curriculum that is appropriate for the differing requirements of each of the countries within the United Kingdom.

These courses have been collected and developed from across The Open University's catalogue, chosen because of their partic
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2.2 Theories, documents and knowledge

Documentary evidence is often messy and inconsistent, and even where it seems to be ‘factual’ (for example in the form of official records) its precise meaning in terms of wider social processes is far from clear. There is uncertainty about what it means, as well as the representation of uncertainty and diversity in the images. In every case, the meaning of the evidence is dependent on interpretation, that is, the part of the theory we employ to understand what is going on.
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References

The Economist (2000) 'Supplement: The new economy: untangling e-conomics', 23 September.
The Economist (2001) 21 July, p. 86.
Fisher, F. and Rubinfeld, D. (2000) 'United States v. Microsoft: an economic analysis', Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No. 30, UC Berkeley School of Law, Calif., at http://papers.ssrn.com (accessed September 2001).
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References

Abernathy, W.J., Clark, K. and Kantrow, A. (1983) Industrial Renaissance: Producing a Competitive Future for America, Basic Books, New York.
Berndt, E.R. and Rappaport, N. (2000) ‘Price and quality of desktop and mobile personal computers: a quarter century of history’, paper presented at the National Bureau of Economic Research’s Summer Institute 2000 session on ‘Price, Output and Productivity Measurem
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