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Introduction

In very broad terms, ‘culture’ refers to the prevailing norms and values which guide the way people behave in a society or in an organisation. Culture at the level of an organisation is referred to as organisational culture, and culture at the level of a society is referred to as national culture.

Organisational culture refers to an organisation's own values, beliefs and learned ways of doing business. This is reflected in its structure and in the people who work in the organisation
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

This OpenLearn course examines the nature of social marketing and how the adoption of marketing concepts, frameworks and techniques developed for commercial marketers can be applied to the solution of social problems. Primarily, social marketing aims to effect behavioural change in the pursuit of social goals and objectives, as opposed to financial or other objectives.

This OpenLearn course is an adapted extract from the Open University course
Author(s): The Open University

Introduction to the context of accounting
Revenue, profit and loss, balance sheets are these accounting terms that intimidate you? This free course, Introduction to the context of accounting, will help you to understand the very basics of accounting, from its historical beginnings to the objectives of modern day accountants. You will learn how an accountant in business balances conflicting demands to maximise market share and profit. Author(s): Creator not set

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Strategic view of performance
Strategic management and planning are no longer the preserve of senior executives. This free course, Strategic view of performance, looks at three different approaches to strategy before analysing the direction that strategic management may take now that it has become an accumulation of small tactical decisions rather than a top-down process. If you are interested in how a business 'ticks', this course could provide some of the answers. Author(s): Creator not set

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The market-led organisation
Marketing means different things to different people. How do you decide who to aim a campaign at? If you already have a background in marketing, this free course, The market-led organisation, will improve your understanding of market orientation and of the process of going to market. It also assesses the importance of managing key internal and external relationships. Author(s): Creator not set

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Introduction

In this course, we explore some aspects of bringing a complex project to completion. There are a number of things to consider in the final stages of a project. It is very important to ensure that the goals of the project have been achieved, and that all the outcomes and deliverables have been handed over to the sponsor (or that any discrepancies have been addressed). Handover can involve different types of presentation for different types of outcome. There may be a physical object to handover
Author(s): The Open University

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Quantitative and qualitative research in finance
What are the key features of qualitative and quantitative research in finance? What do they involve in practical terms, and what they can produce? This free course, Quantitative and qualitative research in finance, explores the underpinning methodologies, then looks at how research data are produced and how they are analysed. The course also includes case study interviews with active researchers and activities to help you understand data sources and sampling. Author(s): Creator not set

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Seeing institutions in different ways
To help you to understand the complexity of institutional development, this free course, Seeing institutions in different ways, will present institutions in three key ways: as rules and norms, as meanings and values and as big players. The rules govern social life and the norms establish how people should behave, while institutional development is about changing the rules. Meanings help people make sense of their lives and values indicate what is good or bad, while institutional development brin
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1 Overview

This course begins with some explanations of culture and discussion of how to distinguish between national and organisational culture. Reading what some well-known writers on organisational and national culture have to say will help you recognise some of the main dimensions of culture and reinforces that all of us, including organisations, construct different views of the world as a result of cultural influences. Thus culture plays a key role in the ways in which organisations perceive the en
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify some fundamental dimensions of national and organisational culture

  • differentiate between various national and organisational cultures

  • discuss ways in which culture influences organisational environments

  • critically apply theories on culture to organisations and the environments in which they operate

  • demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which organisationa
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3.3 Managing conflict

Conflict can emerge when a project is thought to be absorbing scarce resources or shifting the balance of power.

The schedule for project meetings provides a framework for communication while the project is in progress. Meetings with team members on a one-to-one basis, in addition to group meetings, will help them to feel supported and could be an opportunity to provide coaching when necessary.


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Keep on learning

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4.2 Stakeholder analysis

Figure 3 illustrates the range of stakeholders who could have an interest in health-related community social marketing programmes.

The theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour

The extended Fishbein model, based on the theory of reasoned action, includes the following components to explain behaviour.

  1. Attitude to the behaviour comprising:

    • a. The strength of the expectancy (beliefs) that the act will be followed by a consequence.

    • b. The value of that consequence to the individual.

    This is the basic expectancy value approach. Returning to our previo
    Author(s): The Open University

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8 Drawing up the implementation plan

Once the detailed planning and risk assessments have been carried out, you are ready to assemble your implementation plan. A typical implementation plan, including diagrams and charts where appropriate, will contain:

  • a description of the background to the project;

  • its goals and objectives in terms of intended outputs and/or outcomes;

  • the resource implications (budget, personnel – including any training requirements – a
    Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Barriers to planning

The planning stage of a project usually takes place before the activities start, but not always. In any case, planning always continues during the implementation of a project because there is always a need to change some aspects and to revise plans.

Activity 1

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3.7 Analysing and reporting the results

When planning what data to use in the evaluation it is helpful to consider how the data will be analysed. Usually, there are a lot of data, perhaps in several different forms. If you have set clear objectives, it should be possible to identify the data that are relevant to each issue. It is usual to follow the steps below:

  • consider numbers, for example how much has been achieved at what cost;

  • consider quality, whether appropriate and not
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3.4 Evaluation at the end of a project

Different types of evaluation may take place at the end of a project. A common one is determining the extent to which the project outcomes have been achieved. This is often done in a meeting of the sponsor, key stakeholders and project team leaders, and sometimes informed by reports from key perspectives. An evaluation of this nature may be the final stage of the project, and the main purpose might be to ensure that the project has met all of the contracted expectations and can be ‘signed o
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1.1 Formal handover

The outputs of a project should be defined at the planning stage, including any conditions that will be required for a smooth transfer. Each outcome should be formally handed over to the sponsor who should confirm their delivery (‘sign them off’) so that there is no dispute about whether outcomes have been completed.

A closure list is likely to have sections to include the following groups of tasks, but each project will have different features to consider. A list of suggested areas
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