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2.1.2 Diffraction and interference of light

When light, or indeed any type of wave, passes through a narrow aperture, it will spread out on the other side. This is the phenomenon of diffraction. For example Figure 17 shows the diffraction of water waves in a device called a ripple tank. The extent to which waves are diffracted depends on the size of the aperture rel
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1.2.1 The molecular level

It is common knowledge that the freezing point of pure water is 0°C. Often, however, the temperature of water can fall below 0°C without it freezing, for two reasons:

  1. Any solvent containing a dissolved substance has a lower freezing point than when pure, which is why the sea freezes at a lower temperature than clean freshwater.

  2. The occurrence of supercooling, the phenomenon by which a fluid remains liquid at a temperature below
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Introduction

In this unit, we study one aspect of the fluctuating nature of an organism's environment. We consider how organisms living in a temperate climate, such as that in Britain, are adapted to cope with winter. You will see that there is much diversity of adaptations among organisms, with different species coping with the demands of a fluctuating environment in quite different ways. As cyclic variations are a widespread feature of environments, the range of adaptations to them is an important sourc
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3.2 Number of progeny

Female guppies begin to breed as soon as they become mature at about three months old; they then produce clutches of eggs, most of which become fertilized, at roughly one-month intervals until they die or become too old. Clutches vary in size from one to 40 eggs; the average clutch contains about 10 eggs. Thus, female guppies produce a large number of offspring during their lives, far more than can survive to maturity.

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1 Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin (1809–1882) briefly studied medicine in Edinburgh before going to Cambridge intending to become an Anglican clergyman. Soon after the voyage of the Beagle (1831–1836), during which he was gentleman companion to Captain FitzRoy, Darwin became convinced that biological evolution had occurred and saw how it could have been brought about by natural selection. Despite having gathered massive amounts of supporting evidence, Darwin refrained from publishing his revol
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3.1.1 (A) Science and certainty

Pupils should appreciate why much scientific knowledge, particularly that taught in school science, is well established and beyond reasonable doubt, and why other scientific knowledge is more open to legitimate doubt. It should also be explained that current scientific knowledge is the best that we have but may be subject to change in the future, given new evidence or new interpretation of old evidence.


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1 Unit overview

In this unit we'll be concerned with what type of science forms the basis of science education, and for what purpose. You'll explore these issues by reading the text that follows and by tackling the activities that are included; there are also a number of readings. In the latter part of this unit (Sections 10–14) we'll consider some of the practical problems involved in delivering an effective curriculum in science and look at key questions relevant to all three educational tiers –
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of problems associated with defining the Nature of Science;

  • write in an informed way about the purposes of compulsory science education;

  • be aware of the educational complications and implications associated with the phrase ‘the public understanding of science’;

  • show an ability to comment critically on curriculum proposals that aim to promote science citi
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Parliament and the law
How are rules made and who can influence this procedure? This unit will introduce you to the rule-making processes in of the UK Houses of Parliament in Westminster. You will examine how laws are enacted and how it is possible for unelected bodies and people to influence the content of such laws. First published on Wed, 15 Jun 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

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9.5 Tables

Using a table or just a set of columns can help you to analyse information and ideas. You can vary the number of columns and rows as needed. The following activity provides an opportunity for you to summarise information in a table.

Activity 7: Completing a table


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9.3 Linear notes

This is the most common form of note-taking. It involves writing in sequence the points you want to note. As with all note-taking, the aim is to pick out and record the most important points. Avoid simply writing out most or all of the text again.

Try to write your notes in your own words as this will help you understand what you have been reading about. Also add a reference to which page(s) of the text your notes refer so you can easily find your way back to the relevant part of the te
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8 Magistrates

Magistrates have been a part of the English legal system since the Justice of the Peace Act 1361. Their main role has always been in the criminal justice system. There are now over 30,000 magistrates (also known as Justices of the Peace) hearing over one million criminal cases per yea
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4.11.1 Procedural ultra vires

This is where the enabling Act sets out the procedural rules to be followed by the body which has been given the delegated power. The court can find the delegated legislation to be ultra vires and void if these rules were not followed.

In the Aylesbury Mushroom case (1972) Agricultural Horticultural and Forestry Industry Training Board v Aylesbury Mushrooms Ltd (1972) 1 All ER 280 delegated legislation required the Minister of Labour to consult ‘any organisation … appe
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4.8 Professional regulations

Certain professional bodies, such as The Solicitors Regulation Authority, have delegated authority under enabling legislation to regulate the conduct of their members. The Solicitors Regulation Authority has power to control the conduct of practising solicitors under the Solicitors Act 1974. The General Medical Council regulates the conduct of its members under the Medical Act of 1858. It has four main functions:

  • to keep up-to-date registers of qualif
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4.3 Types of delegated legislation

There are different types of delegated legislation:

  • Statutory Instruments

  • byelaws

  • Orders in Council

  • Court Rule committees

  • professional regulations.


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3,3,7 Royal Assent

You have already seen references to Royal Assent in this unit. The monarch formally assents to a Bill in order for it to pass into law. Royal Assent has never been withheld in recent times. Queen Anne was the last monarch to withhold a Royal Assent, when she blocked a Scottish Militia Bill in 1707. The Queen feared a Scottish militia might be turned against the monarchy.

Since the sixteenth century no monarch has actually signed a Bill themselves. Instead, the monarch signs what are kno
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3.3.4 Report stage

A Bill that has been amended in committee stage is reviewed by the House in which it started. The amendments will be debated in the House and accepted or rejected. Further amendments may also be added.


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Introduction

This unit is designed as an introduction to the academic study of the concept of rules, but will also serve as an introduction to a variety of different writing styles that are used in the academic world. It will challenge you to think about why some statements are rules and some are not, and what it is that distinguishes rules from habits and customs. It also looks at more formal rules and how such rules are applied and enforced. Rules shape our lives because they set out what we may and may
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3.2 The evolution of the EU

The EU has grown out of a series of intergovernmental political initiatives which have been expressed in a number of treaties. These treaties form the building blocks that give authority and power to the institutions and law-making bodies of the EU. The process is evolutionary, as treaties are reviewed and amended to reflect both the changing membership and the vision of the EU.

The EU is founded on several treaties:

  1. The treaty that established
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