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References

Entwistle, N. (1997) ‘Contrasting perspectives on learning’ in Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N. (eds) The Experience of Learning: Implications for teaching and studying in Higher Education, Edinburgh, Scottish Academic Press Limited.
Marton, F. and R. Saljo (1997) ‘Approaches to learning’ in Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N. (eds) The Experience of Learning: Implications for teachi
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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7 Conclusion

Reading is a core activity in most courses of study. The purpose of it is to enable you to learn. But learning is not a passive process, you don't just let ideas wash over you. You have to make sense of them as you read and then use them to think with.

Key points

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5.1.6 Are the conclusions justified?

Though I was interested in the idea of treating high incomes as ‘pollution’, I did wonder whether taxing people to pay for the pollution caused by their rising incomes would work. In general though I was reasonably convinced by the conclusions Layard drew. On the other hand, if I was studying the subject more seriously, I might find that wider reading and further thought would make some of the conclusions seem less convincing.


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References

de Bono, E. (1999) de Bono's Thinking Course. London, BBC Books
Entwistle, N. (1994) quoted in Supporting Open Learners Reader (1996) Milton Keynes, The Open University
Holmes, O. W. quoted in Robbins, A. (1991) Awaken the giant within. New York, Simon & Schuster
Rice, M. (1999) Observer Magazine, 7 November
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to thinking skills. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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9 Putting it all together

We have covered a wide range of aspects of thinking, particularly those concerned with clear and critical thinking. At this stage, you may find it useful to consider how ideas like these can be put together in ways that will help you when you engage in activities such as reading, writing, speaking and listening. Here is a checklist to use when making judgements about things that you hear, see and experience.

  • Who is speaking or writing?

  • W
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8.2 Broadening perception

Particular perspectives and points of view underpin speaking and writing. Being successful at many academic tasks, including balanced argument, often requires us to be conscious of and to try to break away from our usual perspectives and ways of thinking, and to attend to things we might not normally notice. The challenge is often to be more open-minded and broad in our thinking, to consider more than one point of view in the way that the caffeine article did. It can be useful to have strateg
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1.8 Maintenance

Databases are one of the more enduring software engineering artefacts; it is not uncommon to find database implementations whose use can be traced back for 15 years or more. Consequently, maintenance of the database is a key issue.

Maintenance can take three main forms:

  • Operational maintenance, where the performance of the database is monitored. If it falls below some acceptable standard, then reorganisation of the database, usuall
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5.3 The architecture

The architecture of the system is shown in Figure 4. It consists of a number of components. The most important of these is the web server. This communicates with browsers used by customers.

There are two other computers that are used in the system which are directly connected to the web server: a mail server which sends and receives mail from customers and a mailing list server which administers the mailing lists of customers and their interests. Both these servers communicate with the
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5.2 The application

The first application I shall describe is that of an online bookseller. Such a book sales system would carry out a number of functions:

  • It would allow the user to browse through a catalogue of books.

  • It would allow the user to browse through a list of the most popular books, with the list being updated every hour.

  • It would provide the facility whereby a user can buy books and add them to a notional shopping basket.


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6.2.1 Using a sales website

A visitor to a sales website is usually able to:

  • browse through the details of the goods for sale;

  • search for a particular product;

  • check on the availability of goods;

  • read reviews of the products by other purchasers;

  • register to receive newsletters which detail new items of interest;

  • buy products using credit or debit cards, and in some cases, other payment methods such as cheq
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7.3 Systematic approaches

Having a systematic step-by-step process for thinking about certain academic tasks can be particularly useful so that everything is done as efficiently as possible.

For example, the DANCE system (Rose and Nicholl, 1997) is one of many tools for solving problems.

  • D - Define and clarify what the problem really is (sometimes it is not initially clear). What are your goals?

  • A - Think of a range of alternative ways of solving the prob
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6.2 Turning the spotlight on your work

Having established some general principles, try now to subject your own work to the same scrutiny.

Activity 14

Take one of your most recent essays or reports and ask yourself, ‘What does it look like?’ That is, d
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5.4 Identifying sources

So what material do you have available to you?

  • Your materials are likely to be your first sources of information.

  • Any guidance notes you may have been given will sometimes tell you exactly which sections you need to look at. But don't forget that your course materials encompass more than just these texts.

  • Make use of any handouts you've been given.

  • Your own notes of what you have been reading or watching; fr
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8.3 Planning your enquiry

I am grateful to Tony Coulson, Liaison Librarian (Arts) at The Open University, for his help with this section; also to Magnus John, Information Services Manager, International Centre for Distance Learning.

At this stage, you will be deciding what methods of enquiry to use and the scale of investigation to attempt. Will examining company papers, government reports and newspapers provide enough of the right kind of information? Or, since independent broadcasting comp
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Conclusion

This free course, The importance of interpersonal skills, provided an introduction to interpersonal skills, which are included in studies of Business & Management. You considered how the content, language and medium of the message being communicated, as well as the relationship you have with the person who is receiving your message, can impact interpersonal interactions. You also looked at the three basic ego states proposed by Eric Berne and how these are adopted in interactions. Fina
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1 Communication

Communication is a fundamental aspect of interpersonal interactions. Good communication can make it easier to establish good relationships with others, whereas poor communication can lead to misunderstandings.

The basis of good communication is very simple, it is speaking or writing clearly such that any message you (the sender) intend to send to someone else (the receiver) is exactly the one which they receive. This means that as well as the detailed content of the messag
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • recognise the importance of interpersonal skills

  • describe how good communication with others can influence our working relationships

  • outline the roles we play in our work groups and teams.


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7.3 Frequency tables

So far you have looked at small sets of data, which are relatively easy to analyse. Naturally, this is not always the case and you need to consider how to work with a larger set of data. Data set B shows 30 TMA scores recorded by a tutor in the order that the scripts were marked.

Data set B:

86 78 93 <
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