STS.011 American Science: Ethical Conflicts and Political Choices (MIT)
We will explore the changing political choices and ethical dilemmas of American scientists from the atomic scientists of World War II to biologists in the present wrestling with the questions raised by cloning and other biotechnologies. As well as asking how we would behave if confronted with the same choices, we will try to understand the choices scientists have made by seeing them in their historical and political contexts. Some of the topics covered include: the original development of nuclea
Author(s): Foley, Brendan

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2.3 Environmental regulation of breeding

As pointed out in Section 1.1, primary plant productivity occurs for only a few months in the summer, so the reproductive physiology of most arctic animals, particularly herbivorous species, is tightly synchronized with the seasons. On Svalbard (Figure 2b), more than 90% of the reindeer fawns are born in the first week of J
Author(s): The Open University

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2008.01.16 - DIY iSync Phone Plugin (Audio)
If you or your staff/faculty have a cell phone model that currently isn't supported on Apple's list of supported iSync devices, you can create your own iSync Phone Plugin for your unsupported cell phone to allow you to sync contacts, and calendars.
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Romanticism in the American Short Story
Power point presentation about Romanticism in the American short story. This presentation explains the literary movement known as romanticism and authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Washington Irving from that era. 
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HST.722J Brain Mechanisms for Hearing and Speech (MIT)
An advanced course covering anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and computational studies of the central nervous system relevant to speech and hearing. Students learn primarily by discussions of scientific papers on topics of current interest. Recent topics include cell types and neural circuits in the auditory brainstem, organization and processing in the auditory cortex, auditory reflexes and descending systems, functional imaging of the human auditory system, quantitative methods for relat
Author(s): Delgutte, Bertrand,Caplan, David N.,Guenther, Fran

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Fe, C 1.0 (wt%), hypereutectoid alloy
This secondary electron SEM image shows the cementite delineating prior austenite grain boundaries with a thin layer. The amount of proeutectoid phase is very low, with the majority of the area being taken by the pearlite eutectoid. Again each pearlite cell has a different orientation with the ferrite phase being selectively etched.
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge,Prof T W Clyne,

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3.1 Agents of eutrophication

Light availability, water availability, temperature and the supply of plant nutrients are the four most important factors determining NPP. Altered availability of nutrients affects the rate of primary production in all ecosystems, which in turn changes the biomass and the species composition of communities.

Author(s): The Open University

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6.2.3 Measurement of the angular distribution of the 3 K radiation

How are such angular distributions to be measured? One way, of course, is to take a radio telescope and swing it round the sky, taking readings in different directions. But as is clear from Figure 20(a), the atmosphere itself emits microwaves. There is therefore a grave danger, with this method, of picking up different contributions of atmospheric emissi
Author(s): The Open University

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2.3.2 Fast breeder reactors

If fast neutrons produced in the chain reactions are not moderated or absorbed, the rate of conversion of uranium-238 into plutonium-239 (Equation 3) can exceed the fission rate of plutonium-239. Reactors that use fast neutrons in this way are called fast breeder reactors.

Their main fuel is
Author(s): The Open University

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3.2 Uranium occurrence and ore deposits

In igneous rocks, uranium is more abundant in granites (~3.5 ppm) than in basalts (~1 ppm). The large size of the uranium atom prevents it from easily entering the structures of common rock-forming minerals, so it is an incompatible element that tends to remain in magmas until a late stage of crystallisation, when it enters minor minerals, or even the uranium oxide, uraninite (UO2). In suitable circumstances, following fractional crystallisation of uranium-rich granitic magm
Author(s): The Open University

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Virtual Maths, Shapes, Space and Measure, Demonstration of a Theodolite Survey in action
Using a theodolite to calculate the height of a building, demonstration 'in the field', includes interactive simulation tools and formulae
Author(s): Leeds Metropolitan University

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4.3.5 Domestic campaigns

An important aspect of efforts to reduce nutrient inputs to water bodies is the modification of domestic behaviour. Public campaigns in Australia have encouraged people to:

  • wash vehicles on porous surfaces away from drains or gutters

  • reduce use of fertilizers on lawns and gardens

  • compost garden and food waste

  • use zero- or low-phosphorus detergents

  • wash only full loads in washing machines


    Author(s): The Open University

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2.4.1 Electromagnetism and fields

When Newton wrote about 'The System of the World' in Part 3 of Principia, the only forces he could discuss in any detail were the contact forces that arose when one object touched another, and gravity, which acted at a distance. Even so, Newton thought that there were other forces at work in the world, and hoped they might eventually be brought within his overall scheme just as gravity had been. In fact, Newton wrote:


Author(s): The Open University

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7.8 Summary of Section 7

This section has sought to illustrate the formation of connections between neurons and their targets by exploring a few examples. The picture that emerges is one of cells at different stages of development subjected to a vast array of signals. These signals are the medium through which environmental factors exert their effects. To some of these signals, some cells respond; to other signals, other cells respond. What a cell, a neuroblast, a growth cone actually does is dependent on the combina
Author(s): The Open University

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18.417 Introduction to Computational Molecular Biology (MIT)
This course introduces the basic computational methods used to understand the cell on a molecular level. It covers subjects such as the sequence alignment algorithms: dynamic programming, hashing, suffix trees, and Gibbs sampling. Furthermore, it focuses on computational approaches to: genetic and physical mapping; genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation; RNA expression and secondary structure; protein structure and folding; and molecular interactions and dynamics.
Author(s): Lippert, Ross

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20.440 Analysis of Biological Networks (BE.440) (MIT)
This class analyzes complex biological processes from the molecular, cellular, extracellular, and organ levels of hierarchy. Emphasis is placed on the basic biochemical and biophysical principles that govern these processes. Examples of processes to be studied include chemotaxis, the fixation of nitrogen into organic biological molecules, growth factor and hormone mediated signaling cascades, and signaling cascades leading to cell death in response to DNA damage. In each case, the availability o
Author(s): Essigmann, John,Sasisekharan, Ram

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1 Natural groups

Darwin made extensive observations on a great many creatures, including mammals, and noticed that species fell into natural groups, e.g. lions, tigers and leopards have many similarities, and resemble cats. On the basis of his observations, he was able to place mammals in distinct groups.

His work has continued, and we now recognise that mammals have evolved from a common ancestor, and have branched into many different groups, or ‘Orders’. The animation below shows the different O
Author(s): The Open University

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6.2.4 The speed and direction of the Earth's motion

The first significant claim to have detected the motion of the Earth relative to the ‘frame of isotropic 3 K radiation’ came in 1977 from a group at Berkeley, California. They concluded that the Earth is moving at a speed of (390 ± 60) km s−1, in a direction towards the constellation Leo, relative to a frame in which the 3 K radiation is isotropic. Their conclusion resulted from observations of a variation of intensity with angle of the form predicted by Equation 14, which w
Author(s): The Open University

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5.3 The redshift of the 3 K radiation

The temperature, T, of the radiation is proportional to the most probable photon energy, E, which as we have said is proportional to f, and hence inversely proportional to the wavelength λ. Thus,

According to Equation 1, we have for the
Author(s): The Open University

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FOAMCARP closed cell aluminium foam
Additions such as SiC are made to molten aluminium or aluminium alloy to modify the melt viscosity and make it suitable for foaming. Calcium carbonate is then added to the melt which is solidified to form a precursor which can be foamed in a controlled manner by a subsequent heat treatment. The resulting foam has a fine and relatively uniform cell structure.
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge,D C Curran, Depa

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